EIPA-WT: Student/Cognitive/Language Development
|attachment||Because ____ is important to young students, it can facilitate the student's learning.|
|*attachment||*an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation|
| From age ____ to ____ students develop notions about their ability to achieve (industry vs inferiority). |
____ develops when negative experiences at home, school, or with peers lead to feelings of incompetence.
|6-11|| From age ____ to ____ students develop the capacity to work and cooperate with others. |
Educational interpreters need to be aware that this development is as important as the factual knowledge that students acquire in school.
|peer relationships||____ ____ are very important to social and cognitive development throughtout the school years.|
|middle school||During ____ ____ years, friendships involve a great deal of communication.|
|cognitive development||____ ____ refers to the student's understanding of concepts and the ability to think and reason.|
|language||_____ stimulates cognitive development.|
|language sophistication||_____ ____ influences cognitive abilities.|
|cognitive skills||The ability to interact with others while using language helps students develop ____ ____.|
|Piagetian||A _____ approach to cognitive development assumes that cognitive development is independent from language development.|
|sound, visual information, speech, and touch||Information enters the mind to stimulate cognitive development through perception of _____, ____ ____, ____, and ____.|
|cultural background||____ ____ affects cognition by helping to define what we know, what is important, how we approach new tasks, and how we interact.|
|socialization||____ is an important aspect of cognitive development.|
|play||____ has an important role in cognitive development.|
|abstraction|| Teacher's questions can require different levels of ____ in terms of cognitive skills. |
Taxonomy: Demonstration of knowledge; Comprehension; Application; Analysis; Synthesis; Evaluation.
|*taxonomy||*(study of classification) demonstration of knowledge; comprehension; application; analysis; synthesis; evaluation|
|*comprehension||*an ability to understand the meaning or importance of something (or the knowledge acquired as a result)|
|*application|| *the act of bringing something to bear|
Ex. using it for a particular purpose; "he advocated the application of statistics to the problem"; "a novel application of electronics to medical diagnosis"
|*analysis||*an investigation of the component parts of a whole and their relations in making up the whole|
|*synthesis||*the combination of ideas into a complex whole|
|*evaluation||*act of ascertaining or fixing the value or worth of|
|spatially.....cognitively||Organizing a text ____ may help a student organize the text ____.|
| cognitive |
| ____ organization helps students store and remember concepts. |
Providing students with ____ allows them to see patterns, parallels, comparisons, and similarities, which all help them learn.
| In term of cognitive development, students learn when there is a _____ between what they think and new information that they receive. |
Often this causes a student to _____, or to _____ a cognitive scheme, based on new information
| cognitive scheme|
motor, language, thinking, social
| A ____ ____ is a cognitive structure that organizes information, making sense of experience. |
Students develop schemes in many different domains: ____, ____, ____, ____
|cognitive schemes||Students interpret the world and experiences in terms of their ____ ____ which have been developed based on previous experiences.|
practice, repetition, experience
| Students often need support to learn new concepts in terms of _____. |
Effective support can include ____ , ____, and ____ which aide in generalizing a concept.
|contextualization||breaking down concepts, etc.|
| A students ability to repeat a _____ does not mean the student understands it. |
Students can ____ language without understanding what it really means.
|When a student can answer questions _____ about the concept, or can show that he_____, there is better evidence that the student has learned.|
| _____ a concept and being able to ____ about a concept are not the same. |
Being able to ____ about a concept often helps the students understand it.
| thinking skills|
|The goal of education is for students to acquire _____ ____, not to just memorize _____.|
|see, do, and hear||Students are like little scientists, trying to explore and figure out how the world works based on what they ____, ____, and ____.|
|exploration, making mistakes, and self-correction||Students learn a great deaf from _____, ____, and ____.|
| positive behavior|
| Behavioral approches to learning propose that ____ ____ can be increased by the use of positive re-enforcers.|
____ ____ can be decreased by the use of punishment or withdrawal of privileges.
____ ____ does not recognize the active cognitive construction on the part of the student.
|interaction||____ is essential for language development.|
|interacting||Students learn language by _____ with people.|
|parallels||Language development in ASL _____ the development of spoken languages.|
|ability ....concepts||A student's language level, his world knowledge, and vocabulary skills can impact his _____ to learn new ____.|
| learning |
| Students who are deaf or hh may have language skills that are delayed compared to their hearing peers...however, this is not because they have problems _____ language. |
Rather it is because they have problems _____ language in their environment.
It is an _____ problem and not a _____ problem.
| vocabulary and syntax|
|The ability to have a conversation about daily events doesn't mean that a student can understand academic language used in the classroom. |
Conversations generally have more turn taking about topics that reflect a shared experience.
They also provide more opportunities for repair and misunderstandings.
Academic language is generally more complex in terms of _____ and ____.
It provides students with fewer _____ to understand the topic.
it has less turn taking with longer monologues.
| learning language|
|Deaf and hh students are often in the process of _____ ____in school while they are learning new _____. |
Hearing students are using their language to learn new concepts.
This means that an interpreter may need to include an explanation of a ____ in the interpretation in order to facilitate learning.
new, abstract, or difficult
|It is different using language to communicate concepts that are _____, or used often, compared with using language to communicate concepts that are ____, ____, or ____.|
|When young students make language _____, it is often difficult for them to fix their _____ and they simply repeat the ____. Adults often model the correct language without expecting an immediate change from the student.|
| All students and adults _____. |
_____ can be very communicative and useful.
However, _____ is not linguistic.
|1 year||At ____ of age students begin to produce their first words.|
|2 years||At ____ of age students begin to combine two words or signs into a sentence|
|3 years||At ____ of age students begin to produce complex language|
| 3 to 4 years |
3 to 4 years
| By _____ of age, hearing students are able to use English morphology correctly most of the time. |
By _____ of age, deaf students learning ASL from their deaf families are able to use _____ ____ correctly much of the time.
|early elementary||During the _____ ____ years, students are still learning to use language.|
|early stages||During the ____ ____ of language development, students talk about what is here and now.|
| decontextualized language|
| _____ ____ refers to people and events that are not in the here and now. |
The ability to talk about past events is one of the earliest forms of _____ ____.
|metalinguistic||Students acquire language early, but ______ development is a later development.|
|*metalinguistic language||*abilities that enable a child to consider language in the abstract to make judgements about its correctness and create verbal contexts such as writing (being able to talk about words)|
| Young students use _____ in languages to help determine how to segment language at the word and sentence level.|
_____ also communicates a great deal of information about the speaker's intention, which may particularly benefit students in the process of learning language.
|*prosody|| *changes in pitch, stress, intensity, and duration of sounds during connected speech.|
*The use of changes in intonation and emphasis to convey meaning in speech besides that specified by the particular words; an important means of communication of emotion
| third |
sytax and vocabulary
|The language demands in textbooks increase significantly around _____ grade. |
The language becomes more complex in terms of _____ and _____.
There is more text and fewer pictures to help interpret the text. Students who were able to read first and second grade textbooks may experience more difficulty at this level.
8 or 9
|The development of _____ occurs over a long period of time and students still make numerous errors until around ___ or __ years of age.|
| longer conversations|
|As students develop, they can participate in _____ _____. Their _____ also is much larger.|
| pronouncing |
| Students make mistakes in _____ words and _____ signs when they are beginning to learn. |
All students will continue to make mistakes during language learning.
This is a natural part of learning.
|know....don't know||Students learn best when a teacher understands what they ____ and what they ____ ____.|
|Deaf and hh students who have _____ as their first language typicaly learn _____ from reading.|
| specific and explicit|
| Hearing students do not need to be taught language except in special circumstances. |
However, deaf and hh students may need _____ and _____ instruction in learning _____.
|*specific instruction||*Individualized instruction;closely supervised instruction directly related to student's work-based and chosen occupational training area.|
|*explicit instruction||*a systematic method of teaching with emphasis on proceeding in small steps, checking for student understanding, and achieving active and successful participation by all students, also known as, "demonstrate-prompt-practice:|
| multiple |
| Students learn what words mean over time through _____ exposures. |
Typically, hearing students may use words incorrectly while they are in the process of learning.
Students do not learn words by learning a _____.
|speech||Learning sign language will not interfere with a student's ability to learn _____.|
|Students do not learn language by learning the language _____ and then learning how to use it. |
They become aware of the _____ long after they have mastered it, often by explicit metalinguistic teaching.
Schools teach students metalinguistic awareness of English. Deaf and hh students rarely have the opportunity to gain metalinguistic knowledge of ____ ____.
|*metalinguistic awareness|| *awareness of one's own knowledge about language. For example, the ability to say what sounds comprise a word or the ability to explain why a sentence is not grammatical., |
*the ability to reflect on the use of language
| _____ is essential for language development. |
_____ with other students is also critical for language development.
Students do not correct each other like adults do when talking to students which means that students will be less inhibited in their use of language when adults are not around.
|_____ with other students is critical for language development. The pragmatics of _____ with your peers is different than the pragmatics of _____ with adults. |
Students do not correct each other like adults do when talking to students.
Having an adult present during peer to peer _____ may alter the _____.
|cultural background||Our ____ ____ affects our language, especially in terms of the rules of interaction, how much we may talk with our students and adutls, and what we believe is the role of communication in our daily lives.|
|hearing loss||The early detection of ____ ____ is critical because it allows deaf and hh students to develop language that is more age appropriate when compared with their hearing peers.|
|fluent language||The majority of deaf and hh students are born to hearing families who may not provide them access to a ____ ____ early in development.|
| cochlear implants|
| ____ ____ are medical devices that are intented to improve a student's hearing. |
Interpreting for a student with a ____ ____ may mean that the student is receiving some of the teacher's spoken message as well as teh interpreted message.
|different||Students who had a hearing loss before learning language are ____ from students who learned speech and language and then experienced a hearing loss.|
| When deaf and hh students are delayed in language development, it is typically because their ____ has not provided them sufficient access to ____. |
It is not because something is wrong with the student.
|classroom|| A student's language use at home and the language use at school may differ. |
This may affect the student's ____ performance and his ability to see connections between home and school.
|pragmatic||When a student does not have age-appropriate ____ skills, his peers may view him as socially awkward.|
|*pragmatic skills|| *dialogue/discourse, turn-talking, and topic maintenance, |
*The ability to use language to achieve varied aims (for instance, to persuade) in different circumstances.
|sign systems|| ____ ____ designed to represent English were developed by educators and are not naturally developed languages. |
The adult Deaf community generally does not use them.
|*sign systems||*Sign systems are systems of communication which use signs and gestures to convey meaning.|
|english||Educators who use sign systems believe that exposure to visual ____will facilitate english development, although this has not been proven to be the result for all deaf or hh students. They also believe that english signing is easier for hearing people to learn.|
|languages|| ____ are shared symbol systems. |
When interpreters invent signs they make the student's linguistic system unique from that of other peers, interpreters, and deaf adults.
In addition, this may offend and alienate the deaf community.
|iconicity||____ in sign language does not make learning signs easier.|
|*iconicity||*closeness between the form of a sign and what it represents|