an electrical force linking atoms, interaction that holds two atoms together; electrons shared, gained, or lost in process
a structural formula in which electrons are represented by dots; dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent pairs in covalent bonds.
an elementary particle with negative charge
an electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atom's chemical properties.
a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)
when an atom loses and electron it becomes a positively charged ion
when an atom gains electron and becomes a negatively charged ion
a group of covalently bonded atoms that carries a charge and acts as a unit; is a charged species (ion) composed of two or more atoms.
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
a chemical bond in which electrons are shared over many nuclei and electronic conduction occurs
the ions that make up an ionic compound are bonded in a repeating three-demisional pattern
a compound composed of positive and negative ions arranged in a regular 3D pattern
a type of matter that cotains two or more chemically combined elements
where two or more atoms are held together by covalent bond
the energy released when ions form a solid cyrstal
a solid having a distinctive shape because its atoms are arraged in repeatig pattern
a covalent bond in which two atoms share one pair of electrons.
a covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms
A bond between two carbon atoms in which 6 electrons (or 3 pairs) are shared
a molecule or a part of a molecule that contains both positively and negatively charged regions.
the attraction that occurs between positive and negative charges.
a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron
an elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a proton
a three dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
a region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found
Part of the atom that contains the protons and neutrons. Has the mass of the atom.
the abbreviation of an elements name; 1 or 2 letters, first letter is always capitalized, second is never capitalized
the average mass of all the isotopes of an element
one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons
a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction
a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
is the calculation of measurable relationships of the reactants and products in a balanced chemical reaction.
a means of writing out and describing a chemical reaction.
A substance that gets dissolved by another substance
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
6.02 x 10²³ Representative particles of any substance.
Concentration measured by the number of moles of solute per liter of solvent
A substance that donates a proton (H+) when added to a solution
A substance that accepts a proton when an a free H+ is available
is any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water. Have a sour flavor, change colors in indicators, react with metals, conduct electric current.
a substance that tastes bitter, feels slippery, and turns red litmus paper blue. Also increases hydroxide ion concentrations in solutions.
the measure of the strength of an acid or a base from 1 to 14. Based on the -log[H3O+].
having characteristics of both an acid and a base and capable of reacting as either
an acid that ionizes completely in an aqueous solution
an acid that is only slightly ionized in aqueous solution
a base that completely dissociates into metal ions and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution
A base that ionizes only slightly in a solution is called a________.
compound formed when a Bronsted-Lowry base accepts a proton
compound formed when a Bronsted-Lowry acid gives up a proton
When a chemical reaction and its reverse proceed at equal rates
a state of mater that has a definate shape and volume
a substance in the fluid state of matter having no fixed shape but a fixed volume
a fluid in the gaseous state having neither independent shape nor volume and being able to expand almost indefinitely
laboratory heating device using hydrocarbon combustion
used to make accurate measurements of liquid volumes
a container made of heat-resistant material and used for holding a substance for treatment in a process that requires high temperature
a conical flask with a wide base and narrow neck
glass; used to cover an evaporating dish or beaker, keeping the contents of boiling water from splattering
A tube-shaped, usually glass or plastic device with a tiny opening at one end used for transferring small drops of liquid (see image card).
measuring instrument for measuring temperature
an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure
the pressure that results from the collisions of air molecules with objects,, is greatest at low elevations.
The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases.
The relationship between pressure and temperature of a gas at constant volume and number of particles.
universal gas constant
constant that relates pressure, volume, temperature and number of moles of gas in an ideal gas law, .0821 (L x kPa)/(K x mol)
Celsius to Fahrenheit
°F = (1.8 x °C) + 32
Fahrenheit to Celsius
°C = (°F - 32) / 1.8
Celsius to Kelvin
Kelvin to Celsius
°C = K - 273
turns red for an acid/stays blue for a base
turns blue for a base/ stays red for an acid
a compound in which all of the water has been removed, gains water molecules easily
the difference between the observed value and the true value
calculated by subtracting the experimental value from the accepted value , dividing the difference by the accepted value, and then multiplying by 100
a quantity used by general agreement of the scientific community, the correct value based on reliable references
a chemical formula showing the ratio of elements in a compound rather than the total number of atoms