Anatomy Exam

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Organs of the alimentary canal.

Mouth
Pharynx
Stomach
Esophagus

The release of food from the stomach into the small intestine is regulated by the...

pyloric sphincter

protein digestion begins in the

stomach

thesmall intestine extends from the...

pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve

Middle section of the small intestine

jejunum

enzymes and bile are carried by the pancreatic duct and bile duct into the..

ileum

the primary function of the small intestine

absorption of nutrients

Subdivisions of the large intestine

cecum
rectum
appendix
colon

The organ responsible of drying out indigestible food residue through water absorption and elimination of feces

large intestine

the opening of the large intestine

anus

number of permanent teeth within a full set of adult teeth

32

bile is produced and stored where?

Produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder

buildup of bile in the liver leading to bile pigments circulation through the body could cause tissues to turn yellow. This condition is called...

Jaundice

the first nutrient to be chemically digested

starch

Villi

Projections inside the small intestine that increase the surface area for absorption of nutrients.

The sequential order of the digestive organs making up the alimentary canal (mouth to anus)

Mouth > Pharynx > Esophagus > Stomach > Small Intestine > Large Intestine > Anus

The three mucosa covered projections into the nasal cavity that increase the surface area of the mucosa exposed to the air

conchae

Throat

Pharynx

Inflammation of the sinuses that can cause marked changes in voice quality

Sinusitis

Large shield shaped thyroid cartilage that protrudes anteriorly

Adams apple

C shaped rings that reinforce the trachea are constructed of what

Nyaline cartilage

Flap of elastic cartilage that protects the opening of the larynx

epiglottis

A procedure in which air within the lungs is used to forcible expel an obstructing piece of food to avoid suffocation

Heimlich maneuver

The smallest conducting passageways of the lungs

bronchi-oles

"dust cells" that wander in and out of the alveoli, picking up bacteria, carbon particles, and other debris

macrophages

the air sacs of the lungs

Alveoli

the process of moving air into and out of the lungs is commonly called breathing or...

pulmonary ventilation

gas exchange between blood and tissue cells

internal respiration

respiratory capacities are measured by a..

spirometer

an abnormal bubbling sound caused by diseased respiratory tissue, mucus, or pus

emphysema

most carbon dioxide is dissolved in blood plasma and transported as...

bicarbonate ion

inadequate oxygen deliver to the body tissues

hypoxia

during internal respiration, what blood gas is loading into the bloodstream?

carbon dioxide

a normal respiratory rate of about 12 to 15 breathes per minute

eupnea

the most important stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is the body's need to rid it self of..

carbon dioxide

Chronically inflamed, hypersensitive bronchial passages that can be irritated by dust mite and cockroach droppings are indicative of..

asthma

The conducting passageways preform...

allow air to reach the lungs
purify air
warm incoming air
humidify air

Terms applied to the nose

External nares
nasal cavity
nasal septum
nostrils

air from the nasal cavity enters the superior portion of the pharynx called..

nasopharynx

tonsils that lie at the base of the tongue

lingual tonsils

Following the removal of the larynx, a person would be unable to...

speak

the opening between the vocal cords

glottis

the serous membrane covering the surface of the lungs is called the

visceral pleura

when oxygen enters the respiratory system, what is the next structure to which it travels immediately upon leaving the trachea

main bronchi

Parts of the respiratory zone

respiratory bronchioles
alveoli
alveolar ducts
alveolar sacs

exchange of both oxygen and carbon dioxide through the respiratory membrane occurs by...

diffusion

air moving in and out of the lungs

plumonary ventilation

the gas exchange that occurs between blood and tissue cells at systemic capillaries

internal respiration

the homeostatic imbalance associated with the death of many full term newborn infants

SIDS

Normal, quit breathing which moves approximately 500 ml of air per breath

tidal volume

sudden inspirations resulting in the spasm of the diaphragm

hiccuping

tube that is posterior to the trachea

esophagus

blase of upward rushing air that clears the lower respiratory passageways

coughs

Lymph flows

toward the heart only

Lymphoid tissues that trap and remove bacteria entering the throat

tonsils

the lymph organ that programs t cells and functions at peak levels only during youth

thymus

the body's first line of defense against the invasion of disease causing microorganisms

skin and mucous mebranes

compared to the nonspecific chemicals that cover body surfaces and mucous membranes, the specific defense system is..

slower

Antigens

pollen grains
bacteria
fungi
virus particles

lymph from the left arm would return to the heart through the..

right lymphatic duct

B cells develop immunocompetences in the..

bone marrow

what specific type of acquired immunity do vaccines provide

artificially acquired active immunity

Vaccines can not be used for

snake bites, rabies bites, etc.

Methods of antibodies inactivating antigens

agglutination
complement fixation
neutralization

excess accumulations of fluid, which impair the exchange of materials within the tissues

edema

lymph exists the lymph node via

efferent

The role of what is to remove worn out blood cells and return some of the products to the liver in the lymphatic system

spleen

the clumping of foreign cells, a type of antigen-antibody reaction used in blood typing

agglutiination

study of the immune system

immunology

the lymphoid tissue is located overlying the heart

thymus gland

the process by which neutrophils squeeze through capillary walls

diapedesis

and isograft is a tissue graft donated by

and identical twinn

a class of T cells that release chemicals to wind down T and B cell activity

regulatory t cells

a class of T cells that specialize in killing virus infected, cancer or foreign graft cells

cytotoxic T cells

lymph organs that filter lymph

lymph nodes

Four cardinal signs of inflammation

redness
heat
swelling
pain

Donor by fraternal twin

allograft

tiny air sacs in the lungs designed to exchange gaseous oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood

alveoli

muscular tub extending from the mouth to the stomach that transport partially digested food

esophagus

the sternum and attached ribs that cover the heart and lungs

chest plate

bell shaped muscle that separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity

diaphragm

organ at the base of the lungs that decomposes toxins and drugs as well as waste

liver

small pear shaped organ that stores bile produced by the liver until needed for digestion

gallbladder

bean shaped organ that filters blood and excretes urea and water as urine

kidney

voice box having vocal cords which produce distinct sounds for communication

larynx

tube connecting the fetus and the placenta

umbilical cord

cartilage lined airway leading from the larynx to the bronchi of the lungs

trachea

organ lying dorsal to the stomach that part of the lymphatic system that destroys and recycles old red blood cells, produces antibodies, and supplies extra blood volume in emergencies

spleen

fluid filled sacs that surround the heart

pericardium

the beginning of the small intestine that is connected to the stomach

duodenum

fold in the stomach that allow it to expand

rugae

the largest artery of the body

aorta

Why do the lungs have a large number of blood vessels

to transport the un oxgenated blood to and from the heart

what are the two major veins of the pigs heart that return deoxygenated blood from the body

superior and inferior venae cavae

a fetal pig at 100 days is considered

full term

What moves down when the pig inhales allowing the chest cavity to expand

diaphragm

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