things made by humans long ago
old stone age
cradle of civilization
one of the oldest known cities
Chaldean king who built the hanging gardens to please his wife
grand temple with a shrine at the top like a great wedding cake
new stone age
people who regularly move from place to place
hero of an epic who travels around the world performing deeds
the first large army to use iron weapons
hot and dry
Mesopotamia's climate was ______
the Sumerian writing system was called ______
___________ study artifacts and fossils to help them understand the past
ruled the underworld with her husband Osiris
female Pharaoh who concentrated on building the Egyptian economy.
The Great Pyramid
tallest building in the world for 4,000 years
a reed plant used for paper making
world's longest river
greatest of the New Kingdom pharaohs ruled for 66 years
wild rapids formed by boulders and narrow
built the Great Pyramid at Giza
south of the Nile River delta
capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom
Book of the Dead
________ was a collection of spells and prayers studied to help obtain the afterlife.
an embalmed body wrapped in cloth strips is a _______
the chief god of the Egyptians was ________
name given to the descendants of Jacob; means "one who struggles with God"
formed the basic moral laws of many nations
commemorates the cleansing of the temple by the Maccabees
belief that there is only one god; became the basis for Islam and Christianity
Chaldean king who captured Jerusalem and exiled 10,000 Jews
first five books of the Hebrew Bible
period of time when Jews were sent to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar
remembered by Israelites as their greatest king
descendants of Abraham who left Mesopotamia and settled in Canaan
Persian king who allowed Jews to return to Judah
Jewish religious teachers are called ______
the faith of the Israelites became known as _____
Who lead the Israelites out of Egypt into the Sinai desert?
focused on military service
enforced laws and collected taxes in Sparta
made Athens more democratic
thinkers who ponder questions about life
a form of government used by Spartans
Cyrus the Great
king of Persia
workers hauled 20,000 tons of marble and took 15 years to build this
rules with authority
focused on government and education
Age of Pericles
age of great creativity and learning in Athens
30 years old
Spartan men could return to their homes when they were ________
people forgot how to read and write
the time around 600 BC is called the Dark Age because ______________________
the Greek alphabet was based on which alphabet?
Alexander the Great
a commander in the Macedonian army at 16 and king at 20
a traditional story about gods and heroes
a time when Greek culture spread through the non-Greek world
highest mountain in Greece
Greece's northern neighbor
taught that absolute right and wrong did exist; and asked pointed questions to force his pupils to think for themselves
lighthouse of Alexandria
one of the seven wonders of the ancient world
chief god of the Greeks
father of history
dramatist who questioned traditional thinking about war
Homer's epic "The Iliad" was about _____________
the library here attracted scholars from all over the world
Whose armies conquered the land as far east as modern Pakistan?
written language developed by the Aryans in ancient India
Ganges and Indus River valleys
India's first settlements were here
a peaceful people who farmed and traded with their neighbors in the Indus River valley
means "enlightened one"
the consequences of how a person lives his or her life
one of the oldest religions in the world, and today the third largest
highest mountains in the world
meaning "divine law", it directs Hindus to do the duty of their castes
first great Buddhist king; dedicated his life to peace
Four Noble Truths
"Life is full of suffering" is one of the _________________.
The _____ system determines a person's job, social groups, and marriage.
The belief that people pass through many lives is called ______.
China first great thinker who taught that if each person does his or her duty, society as a whole will do well.
first examples of written Chinese language
a cold, rocky desert east of the Kunlun Shan and Tian Shan mountains
Chinese Emperor who wanted the best minds to work in government
Huang He Valley
site of the first Chinese civilizations
taught that people needed harsh laws and punishment to make them live rightly
Qin built this and extended it to keep out the Xiongnu.
practice that requires children to respect their parents and older relatives
a network of trade routes that extended from China to southwest Asia
A cruel leader who made changes to China's government that would last for 2,000 years; unified China is named for him.
saddle and stirrup
Chinese inventions that allowed soldiers to fight on horseback.
the best known Shang art form is ________.
_______ taught that people need a strong ruler to maintain order.
Rome's greatest public speaker
artisans, shopkeepers, and owners of small farms in ancient Rome
First Punic War
Rome defeated Carthage in 241 BC for control of Sicily
Pompey, Julius Caesar, and Crassus
a human made channel for carrying water long distances
Octavian, Anthony, and Lepidus
legend of Trojan hero said to have begun Rome
two hundred years of peace that began with the rule of Augustus
Third Punic War
Rome enslaved 5,000 Carthaginians
first written laws
What were the Twelve Tables?
Caesar's enemies killed him
What happened on March 15 in the year 44 BC?
What title did Octavian take?
______________ began in the Roman Empire.
first Roman emperor to become a Christian
A strong emperor of the Byzantine Empire
arena in ancient Rome that could hold 60,000 people
became the basis for many modern European languages
Western Roman Empire
fell in AD 476 to a Germanic general named Odoacer
rapidly increasing prices caused by a decline in the value of money
a curved ceiling made by building arches against one another
Eastern Roman Empire
thrived and became the Byzantine Empire
the religious center of the Byzantine Empire
Roman statues were more realistic
How did the Roman statues differ from the Greek statues?
How long did the Byzantine Empire last?
What was a major Byzantine industry?
Rome's punishment of political rebels and lower class criminals
early Christian leaders who set up Churches
Bishop of Rome
regular church members
people who believe Jesus was the Messiah
a person willing to die rather than give up his or her beliefs
official Church teachings
the Romans made the Jews leave Jerusalem and never return
What happened after the Jews rebelled against the Romans in AD 132?
Peter and Paul
What two Apostles were the founders of early Christian churches?
Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Church
In AD 1054, the Catholic Church split into what two churches?
The most important god in Islam
founded the Islam religion when he was visited by an angel
surrendering to the will of God
followers of Islam
holy book of Islam
Five Pillars of Islam
acts of worship that Muslims are expected to fulfill
the longest ruling dynasty in the Arabian empire
Muslim house of worship
famous Muslim building in India built as a tomb
Shiites and Sunnis
What two groups split into after the Rightly Guided Caliphs?