A property that can be observed without changing the nature of the substance. Examples: Density, color, odor.
A change in matter in which the nature of the material involved does not change.
A property that can be observed by changing the nature of the substance.
An interaction of matter that results in the formation of one or more new substances.
Made the periodic chart.
The mass of the average atom.
The number of protons in a substance.
Says that the properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic weights.
First element on the periodic table.
Last naturally occuring element on the periodic table (include atomic number).
Different atoms of the the same element.
Sum of the protons and the neutrons.
Naturally occurring solid substances commonly removed from ores to maintain a particular element.
Ease of being drawn into thin wires.
Rock or other solid material from which it is profitable to recover a mineral containing a metal or other useful substance.
An element with properties of luster, ductility, malleability, and conductivity.
A mixture of metals, or a mixture of a metal with other elements.
Oxidation takes place here.
Reduction takes place here.
The sum of the masses of all the atoms in a chemical formula or symbol, measured in grams.
Quantity of a substance equal to the formula mass in grams.
A mole of any substance contains the same number of smallest pieces of a substance that are in a mole of any other substance.
Important rule about moles.
The percent (by mass) of every element in a compound.
Separation of liquid substances according to their differing boiling points.
The condensed products of distillation.
A fuel formed from plant or animal remains buried under the Earth's surface for millions of years. Examples: Coal, petroleum, natural gas.
Energy associated with position.
Energy associated with motion.
Energy stored in the chemical bonds of substances.
A process that requires the addition of energy.
A process that requires the release of energy.
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.
The process of converting large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller ones through the application of thermal energy and a catalyst.
Increases the speed of a chemical reaction by participating in it.
A common reference standard for gasoline quality.
Has an octane rating of 100.
A measure of the combustion quality of gasoline compared to the combination quality of isoctane.
Fuels with oxygen-containing additives that increase the octane rating and reduce harmful emissions. Example: Methanol.
A chemical change involving rearrangement of atoms or bonds within the molecule without changing its molecular formula.
The number of calories required to change the temperature of one gram of a substance to one degree Celsius (Water: 1.0 calories/g degree C).
The source of oil.
All the digits in a measurement that are certain plus one final digit that is uncertain.
Direct Water Use
The approximate volume (of water) which can be directly measured.
Indirect Water Use
Hidden use of water.
A neutral group of atoms covalently bonded.
The state of matter having no fixed volume or shape (i.e. water vapor).
The state of matter having a fixed volume, but no fixed shape (i.e. water).
The state of matter having a fixed volume and shape (i.e. a chair).
Water found on the Earth's surface, such as oceans, rivers, and lakes.
Water from an aquifer or another underground source.
A water-bearing layer of rock, sand, or gravel.
The processes of precipitation, run-off, evaporation, and condensation that circulate water within the Earth's crust.
Part over the whole times 100.
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
A unique form of matter with a unique set of physical and chemical properties.
When 2 or more substances combine and the substances keep their own individual properties.
A characteristic that can be observed without changing the nature of the substance.
A charateristic of a substance that describes a way that it changes its nature.
Homogeneous Mixture (Solution)
A mixture that is uniform throughout.
A mixture that is not uniform throughout.
Density (as fraction).
A solution in which water is the solvent.
A mixture with small, solid particles in the water (heterogeneous mixture).
The level of something's atoms and molecules.
The simplest form of matter - a substance that is made up of only 1 kind of atom.
The smallest piece of an element that contains the properties of that element.
Symbols of the elements that are present in a substance, with subscripts that tell the relative number of atoms present in the smallest particle of the substance.
1 or 2 letters that represent an element.
A substance composed of 2 or more elements.
A short-hand way of representing chemical changes.
Electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms.
A substance composed of positive and negative ions.
An ion composed of 2 or more atoms.
Water you can drink.
A test that sees what was present.
A test the measures the amount of something.
A solution in which the solvent has dissolved as much solute as it can retain stably at a specified temperature.
The quantity of a substance that will dissolve in a given quantity of solvent to form a saturated solution at a given temperature.
A graph indicating the solubility of a particular solute at different temperatures.
A solution containing a lower concentration of solute than a saturated solution contains at a specified temperature.
A solution containing a higher concentration of solute than a saturated solution at a given temperature.
The dissolving agent in a solution.
The dissolved substance in a solution.
The white solid you get in a solution when mixing ions.
A significant amount of the solute does not dissolve in some of the solvent.
A molecule with regions of partial positive and partial negative charge resulting from the uneven distribution of electrical charge.
The attraction between cations and anions.
A covalent bond where electrons are shared unevenly due to a difference in electronegativity between the bonded atoms.
The tendency of an atom to attract shared electrons in a bond.