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Unit Four World Wars - No Test, On final exam Created May 20th Final Exam May 25th

Blitzkrieg

Ger. lightning warfare, motorized/corrdinated assault using speed as the key

Heinz Guderian

British; father of Blitzkrieg warfare tactics

Invasion of Poland

Case White - Ger. radio blames Polish troops crossed the border, Ger. moves into Poland

Moltov-Ribbentrop Pact

Treaty b/w Russia and Germany, agreed to split invasion of Poland, broken when Germany begins invasion of Russia

Phony War

In the beginning of WWII, no countries in Europe launched any major, significant battles or attacks

Russo-Finnish War

Finns fight hard but lsoe, overwhelmed by Russia

Invasion of Norway

Ger. wants for ports, Swedish iron, and to protect their Northern flank; either side wanted Norway so the other side couldn't have it; Ger. victory

Invasion of the Low Countries and France

German assault to capture France, ended Phony War, Ger. breaks through Maginot Line and outflanks French, forcing the retreat and evacuation at Dunkirk

Maginot Line

fortifications b/w Switz and Belgium along Ger/French border to protect France

Gamelin Plan

Maurice Gamelin (French Commander in Chief) - move army into Belgium once Ger. attacks; predicts they will attack from the Ardennes

Mers al Kebir

After Germany captured France, a French Navy was in this town, about to be taken over by Germany, until Britain attacked the fleet to prevent it from being taken over

Dunkirk

French soldiers evacuated from Gamelin Plan - outflanked and forced to retreat to Dunkirk where they were transported by boats to England

Vichy French

part of French gov. that allied with the Axis Powers, attacked American forces during Operation Torch of North Africa at Algiers, 7000 casualties

Battle of Britain

German air attack on England, battle took place in air only, first defeat of Nazis

Radar

British advantage over Germany, could know of German planes approaching

Operation Sea Lion

Hitler's plan for the invasion of England, German defeat in the Battle of Britain postponed the operation, and it was never carried out

The Blitz - Bombing of Britain

Organized bombings of Britain by Germany, London was bombed for 76 nights, failure due to British not surrendering, Operation Sea Lion forgotten

Lebrensraum

Hitler's goal of moving into Russ. to provide living space for Ger. people

Tripartite Pact

Mil. alliance b/w Germany, Italy and Japan forming the Axis Powers; Upset Russia, warned USA

Operation Retribution

Hitler assists Italy in Greece - push British out; delays invasion of Russia 5 weeks

Operation Barbarossa

3 million German troops move into Russia: Northern army to Leningrad, Center army to Moscow, Southern army to Stalingrad and Caucasus; plan was to destroy Russian army in 4 months

German Stop Line

From Archangel to the Caspian Sea; Moves Russians east of Ural Mountains

Einstazgruppen

SS Commando Units of Germany brutal to Russian prisoners and civilians; caused Russ soldiers to desert army, in which Stalin gave orders to shoot and kill any deserters; Russian tenacity stemmed throughout the war

Russian Partisans

Russia civilian untis used against Germany dring Operation Barbarossa

Commisar Order

Given to all German soldiers to kill all in Russia - Soviets never signed Geneva Accords = war without rules

Pearl Harbor

Japan attacks, surprise to Allies (radio silence and uncharted sea lanes), easy target b/c Allies ships were moored 2 by 2

Douglas MacArthur

Commander in Phillipines - Japanese invade, USA loses, MacArthur evacuated and later counterattacks; "I will return"

Cash and Carry

US sells supplies to Allies at beginning of WWII - pay up front and not responsible for transport of materials

Destroyer Deal

US "sells" old WWI destroyers to Brit and in treurn receives naval bases

Lend Lease Act

US leases mil. equipment to Allies

Bataan Death March

Phillipines taken by Japan, US soldiers walk 100mi to prisoner camp

Battle of Midway

Pressure/Threat to USA - close to Pearl Harbor, US cracks Japanese JN-25 code and know of plans, Japan bombs Midway - failure, USA attacks 1st wave failure, 2nd wave sinks 3 carriers and later one more

Erwin Rommel

Command in Germany in North Africa, pushes back British 500mi to Egypt, later runs into supply issues and loses

Second Battle of El-Alamein

Bernard Law Montgomery attacked Germany at EA, British overwhelmed Germany, who wasn't resupplied, Rommel retreats to Libya

Operation Torch

Churchill pushes for North Africa battle, while USA wants an invasion of Europe; displayed Brit. colonialism; Eisenhower and Patton push for Europe, but give in

George Patton

takes Siciliy and afterwards begins inavasion of Italy

Invasion of Italy

Ater American capture Sicily, move into Italy, Italians surrender quickly, Germans continue to fight

Battle of Stalingrad

Bitter fighting in the rubble (from firebombing) of Stalingrad - block by block, house by house, room by room; Russian counter offensive successful, Hitler refuses surrender - Von Paulus surrenders in 1943

Freidrich von Paulus

General of Germany in Stalingrad, asked Hitler for surrender who refused, laster surrendered due to supplies run out

Island Hopping Campaign

Am. in the Pacific knocking out Japan - jump from island to island, battle after battle

Guadalcanal

Solomon Islands, take Japanese airstrip (threat to Australia), tough terrain and climate, Am. victory 1st in Pacific (foot in the door)

Marianas

Gave Am. reach for bombing Japan home island w/ B-29's

Iwo Jima

Gave B-29's escort planes, P-51's in the bombing of Japan home island, provided security, 20000 Am. casualties

Firebombing of Japan

From Marianas and Iwo Jima, 51% of Tokyo destroyed

Operation Overlord

Takinf Fortress Europe - invade from England, storm beaches of Normandy, deception and secrecy required, goal to secure port at Cherbourg, D-Day-June 6, 1944

Fuhrer Principle

gave Hitler total control over any German decisons, actions, politics, etc. - overall commander - all orders through him, bad for Germany

Bernard Law Montgomery

British commander in D-Day; pompous and arrogant, took credit for taking town, when Am. actually did

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Overall commader and director of Operation Overlord

Operation Bodyguard

Shadow 1st Army, commanded by Patton, fake to distract Germany from Operation Overlord, inflatable tanks and fake planes, records played for radio traffic, Hitler fooled and believed fake invasion plans

Operation Market-Garden

Paratroopers sent into Holland and Belgium in order to eliminate V-2 rockets and flank out Germany; failed due to bad intelligence (poor Ger. troops were believed to be there), coordination b/w British and Am. troops was shaky, 8000-10000 Brit. paratoopers lost, Eisenhower said it needed to be risked to press Germany

Battle of the Bulge

Last German counterattack, achieved surprise of Allies 3 armies into Holland and Belgium, intially a success, but lost after Patton broke through German lines, 80000 Am. captured, killed, or wounded

Red Ball Express

Allies convoy system created to move through Europe after the invasion of Normandy, mainly dirt roads

Executive Order 9066

President FDR authorized Japanese Am. citizens to be placed in prison camps after Pearl Harborm suspecting of Japanese spies

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Two atomic bombs dropped on these cities, both indiustrial and highly populated, both wiped out, forced Japanese to surrender on August 9, 1945

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