Dev Psych Chpt 8, 9, 10 - The Play years

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During the preschool years, the most common disease of young children in developed nations is

tooth decay

The brain center for speech is usually located in the

left hemisphere

Which of the following is an example of tertiary prevention of child maltreatment

removing a child from an abusive home

The brain area that registers emotions is the

amygdala

Children tend to have too much ____ in their diet, which contributes to ____

sugar; tooth decay

Skills that involve large body movements, such as running and jumping, are called

gross motor skills

The brain's ongoing myelination during childhood helps children

control their actions more precisely; react more quickly to stimuli; control their emotions

The leading cause of death in childhood is

accidents

Regarding lateralization, which of the following is not true

some cognitive skills require only one side of the brain

In young children, perseveration is a sign of

immature brain functions

The area of the brain that directs and controls the other areas is th

prefrontal cortex

The relationship between physical abuse and neglect and income can be described as

a negative correlation

Which of the following is true of the corpus callosum

It connects the 2 halves of the brain

The improvements in eye-hand coordination that allow preschoolers to catch and then throw a ball occur, in part, because

the brain areas associated with this ability become more fully myelinated

During the school years, inadequate lateralization of the brain and immaturity of the prefrontal cortex may contribute to deficiencies in

cognition; peer relationships; emotional control

Each year from ages 2-6, the average child gains and grows, respectively

4.5lbs and 3 inches

The center for perceiving various types of visual configurations is usually located in the brain's

right hemisphere

Regarding handedness, which of the following is not true

some societies favor left handed people

The most prevalent disease or condition of young children in developed nations is

tooth decay

Seeing her toddler reach for a brightly glowing burner on the stove, Sheila grabs his hand say says "No, that's very hot". Sheila's behavior is an example of

secondary prevention

Which of the following is true of a developed nation in which many ethnic groups live together

Children of African descent tend to be tallest, followed by Europeans, Asians, and Latinos

Which of the following is an example of perseveration

2 yr old Jason sings the same song over and over

Which of the following is an example of a fine motor skill

drawing with a pencil

Children who have been maltreated often

regard other children and adults as hostile and exploitative; are less friendly and more aggressive; are more isolated than other children

The left half of the brain contains areas dedicated to all of the following except

creative impulses

When parents or caregivers do not meet a child's basic physical, educational, or emotional needs, it is referred to as

neglect

Most gross motor skills can be learned by healthy children by about age

3

Andrea is concerned because her 3 yr old daughter has been having nightmares. Her pediatrician tells her

not to worry, because nightmares are often caused by increased activity in the amygdala, which is normal during early childhood

The brain area that is a central processor for the memory is the

hippocampus

During the play years, children's appetites seem ___ they were in the first 2 years of life

smaller than

Piaget believed that children are in the preoperational stage from ages

2 to 6 years

Which of the following is not a characteristic of preoperational thinking

abstract thinking

Which of the following provides evidence that early childhood is a sensitive period, rather than a critical period, for language learning

people can and do master their native language after early childhood; vocab, grammar and pronunciation are more acquired especially early during early childhood; neurological characteristic of the young child's developing brain facilitate language acquisition

According to Vygotsky, children learn because adults do all of the following except

provide reinforcement

Reggio Emilia is

a new form of early-chilhood education that encourages children to master skills not usually seen until age 7 or so

The vocabulary of preschooled children consists primarily of

verbs and concrete nouns

Preschoolers sometimes apply the rules of grammar even when they shouldn't. This tendency is called

overregulation

The Russian psychologist Vygotsky emphasized that

language helps children form ideas

Private speech can be described as

a way for formulating ideas to oneself

The child who has not yet grasped the principle of conservation is likely to

insist that a tall, narrow glass contains more liquid than a short, wide glass, even though both glasses actually contain the same amount

In later life, High/Scope graduates showed

higher scores on math and reading achievement tests

The best preschool programs are generally those that provide the most

positive social interactions among children and adults

Many preschool programs that are inspired by Piaget stress ____, in contrast to alternative programs that stress ____

child development; school readiness

Preschoolers can succeed at tests of conservation when

the test is presented in a simple, nonverbal, and gamelike way

Through the process called fast-mapping, children

immediately assimilate new words by connecting them through their assumed meaning to categories of words they have already mastered

Children who speak two languages by age 5

are less egocentric in their understanding of language; are more advanced in their theory of mind; have somewhat slower vocabulary development in one or both languages

Piaget believed that preoperational children fail conservation of liquid tests because of their tendency to

focus on appearance

A preschooler who focuses his or her attention on only one feature of a situation is demonstrating a characteristic of preoperational thought called

centration

Over characteristic of preoperational thought is

the inability to perform logical operations

The zone of proximal development represents the

skills or knowledge that are within the potential of the learner but are not yet mastered

According to Vygotsky, language advances thinking through private speech, and by

serving as a mediator of the social interaction that is a vital part of learning

Irreversibility refers to the

failure to understand that undoing a process will restore the original conditions

According to Piaget

it is impossible for preoperational children to grasp the concept of conservation, no matter how carefully it is explained

Scaffolding of a child's cognitive skills can be provided by

a mentor; the objects or experiences of a culture; the child's past learning

Which theorist would be most likely to agree with the stagement, "Adults should focus on helping children learn rather than on what they cannot do"?

Vygotsky

Children first demonstrate some understanding of grammer

in their earliest sentences

Seeing his cousin Jack for the first time in several months, 3 yr old Zach notices how long Jack's hair has become. "You're turning into a girl" he exclaims. Zach's comment reflect the preoperational child's

tendency to focus on appearance

Most 5 yr olds have difficulty understanding comparisons because

they don't understand that meaning depends on context

Overregularization indicates that a child

is clearly applying rules of grammar

Regarding the value of preschool education, most developmentalists believe that

most disadvantaged children will benefit from an early preschool education

Preschool children have a clear (but not necessarily accurate) concept of self. Typically, the preschooler believes that she or he

is great at almost everything

According to Freud, the third stage of psychosecual development, during which the penis is the focus of psychological concern and pleasure, is the

phallic stage

Girls generally are better than boys at regulating their

externalizing emotions

The three basic patterns of parenting described by Diana Baumrind are

authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative

Authoritative parents are receptive and loving, but they also normally

set limits and enforce rules

Children who watch a lot of violent TV or play violent video games

are more likely to be violent; do less reading; tend to have lower grades in school

Between 2 and 6 yrs of age, the form of aggression that is most likely to increase is

instrumental

During the play years, a child's self-concept is defined largely by his or her

expanding range of skills and competencies

Behaviorists emphasize the importance of ____ in the development of the preschool child

praise and blame

Children apply gener labels and have definite ideas about how boys and girls behave as early as age

2

Developmentalists agree that punishment should be

rare and limited to behaviors the child understands and can control

Six yr old Leonardo has superior verbal ability rivaling that of most girls his age. Dr. Laurent believes this is due to the fact that although his sex is predisposed to slower language development, Leonardo's upbringing in a liguistically rich home enhanced his biological capabilities. Dr. Laurent is evidently a proponent of

epigenetic theory

3 yr old Jake, who lashes out at the family pet in anger, is displaying signs of ____ problems, which suggests that he is emotionally ____

externalizing; undercontrolled

Compared to North American mothers, Japanese mothers are more likely to

use reasoning to control their preschoolers' social behavior; use expressions of disappointment to control their preschoolers' social behavior; express empathy for the child

When her friend hurts her feelings, Maya, shouts that she is a "mean old stinker!" Maya's behavior is an example of

relational aggression

Children of permissive parents are most likely to lack

self-control

The major psychosocial accomplishment of the play years is

learning when and how to express emotions

Which area of the brain plays an important role in the child's greater capacity for self-control that appears at age 4 or 5

prefrontal cortex

Generally speaking, the motivation of preschool children is

intrinsic

Which of the following best summarizes the current view of developmentalists regarding gender differences

developmentalists disagree on the proportion of gender differences that are biological in origin

According to Freud, a young boy's jealousy of his father's relationship with his mother, and the guilt feelings that result, are part of the

Oedipus complex

The style of parenting in which the parents make few demands on children, the discipline is lax, and the parents are nurturant and accepting is

permissive

Cooperating with a playmate is to ____ as insulting a playmate is to _____

prosocial behavior; antisocial behavior

Antipathy refers to a person's

feelings of anger or dislike toward another person

Which of the following theories advocates the development of gender identification as a means of avoiding guilt over feelings for the opposite-sex parent

psychoanalytic

A parent who wishes to use a time-out to discipline her son for behaving aggressively on the playground would be advised is

have the child sit quietly indoors for a few minutes

The preschooler's readiness to learn new tasks and play activities reflects his or her

emerging competency and self-awareness

Emotional regulation is in part related to maturation of a specific part of the brain in the

prefrontal cortex

In which style of parenting is the parents' word law and misbehavior strictly punished

authoritarian

Erikson noted that preschoolers eagerly begin many new activities but are vulnerable to criticism and feelings of failure; they experience the crisis of

initiative vs guilt

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