Criminal Justice Systems Ch 2 Key Terms

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key terms and their definitions from textbook REID edition 8

aggravated assault (p 38)

Technically, an assault is a threat to commit a battery, but often, the term is used to refer to a battery. Aggravated assault involves a battery inflicted by use of a deadly weapon.

arson (p 39)

The willful and malicious burning of the structure of another with or without the intent to defraud. Burning of one's own property with the intent to defraud is included in some definitions. Many modern structures carry a more severe penalty for the burning of a dwelling than of other real property.

Baby Moses laws (p 45)

Provisions for protecting mothers (or fathers) who abandon their newborn children in ways that will protect those infants. These laws are becoming more common in the US as well as other countries. The law provides for new parents to leave their infants at a designated safe place to avoid prosecution.

Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) (p 29)

A federal agency authorized by Congress to collect and analyze crime data based on surveys of the general population, who are questioned about crime victimizations.

burglary (p38)

The illegal or forcible entering of any enclosed structure in order to commit a crime, usually theft. Some jurisdictions require that the intent be to commit a felony rather than a less serious crime.

crime rate (p 32)

Number of crimes per 100,000 population.

crimes known to the police (p 32)

All serious criminal offenses that have been reported to the police and for which the police have sufficient evidence to believe the crimes were committed.

hate crime (p 39)

As defined in the federal criminal code, a crime "that manifests evidence of prejudice based on race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity, including where appropriate the crimes of murder, non negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, aggravated assault, simple assault, intimidation, arson, and destruction, damage or vandalism of property."

index offenses (p 32)

The FBI's Uniform Crime Reports of the occurrences of the eight crimes considered most serious: murder and non negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson.

larceny-theft (p 39)

The unlawful removal and taking away of someone else's property with the intention of keeping it permanently. Historically, small thefts are labeled as petit larceny and large thefts as grand larceny.

manslaughter (p 37)

The unlawful killing of a human being by a person who lacks malice. Involuntary manslaughter is the result of recklessness while committing an unlawful act (such as driving while intoxicated) and voluntary manslaughter is intentional killing committed in the heat of passion.

motor vehicle theft (p 39)

The stealing of an automobile, in contrast to the stealing of an automobile part of larceny-theft from an automobile.

murder (p 37)

The unlawful killing of another person with either express or implied malice aforethought. The willful killing of one human being by another.

National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) (p 35)

Crime data collected by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) and based on surveys of people to determine who has been victimized by crime.

National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) (p 34)

A reporting system used by the FBI in collecting crime data. In this system, a crime is viewed along with all of its components, including the type of victim, type of weapon, location of the crime, alcohol/drug influence, type of criminal activity, relationship of victim to offender, and residence of victims and arrestees, as well as a description of the property and its value.

prima facie evidence (p 39)

Evidence that, on its face, is sufficient to constitute a fact unless it is sufficiently refuted.

property crimes (p 38)

Crimes aimed at the property of another person rather than at the person.

rape (p 36)

Historically, unlawful vaginal intercourse with a woman. It is called forcible rape if engaged in against the will of the woman by the use of threats or force. Recently, laws have been re written to include male victims and female perpetrators, as well as the penetration of any body opening by any instrument including but not limited to the male sexual organ.

restitution (p 42)

Punishment that requires an offender to repay the victim with services or money.

robbery (p 37)

The use of force or fear to take personal property belonging to another against that person's will.

self-report data (SRD) (p 35)

The process of collecting crime data by asking people about their criminal activity, usually by use of anonymous questionnaires.

statutory rape (p 37)

Sexual intercourse that is consensual between a man and a woman who was under the age of consent.

Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) (p 31)

Official crime data, collected and published by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and based on "crimes known to the police" - crimes that are reported to or observed by the police and that the police have reason to believe were committed.

victim compensation programs (p 43)

Plans for assisting crime victims in making social, emotional, and economic adjustments.

victimology (p 42)

The discipline that studies the nature and causes of victimization, as well as programs for aiding victims and preventing victimization.

victim precipitation (p 47)

The concept that a criminal act may have been brought on by the alleged victim's actions.

violent crimes (p 37)

Crimes defined by the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports as serious crimes against a person. They include murder and non negligent manslaughter, robbery, forcible rape, and aggravated assault.

white-collar crime (p 34)

The illegal actions of corporations or individuals, committed while pursuing their legitimate occupations. Examples are consumer fraud, bribery, and embezzlement.

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