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Preparation for the Bio SAT II.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Secreted from the anterior pituitary gland, this hormone triggers the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal gland.

Androgens

Steroid hormones that maintain male characteristics. The primary one is testosterone.

Antidiuretic hormone

Secreted from the posterior pituitary gland, this hormone regulates solute levels in the blood by promoting water retention in the kidneys.

Beta-endorphin

A peptide hormone that reduces pain, boosts the immune system, and increases relaxation.

Calcitonin

A thyroid hormone that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma and inhibit calcium release from bones. It is antagonistic to parathormone.

Dopamine

A neurotransmitter that influences voluntary movement, attention, and alertness.

Epinephrine

Also known as adrenaline, this hormone prepares the body for "fight or flight" behavior.

Estrogen

A general term for female steroid sex hormones that are secreted by the ovary and responsible for typical female sexual characteristics.

Follicle-stimulating hormone

This hormone initiates ovulation each month in the ovary and estrogen secretion by developing follicles in females, while stimulating sperm production in the males.

Glucagon

A hormone that increases the blood glucose level by triggering its release from the pancreas. It is antagonistic to insulin.

Glucocorticoids

A large class of corticoids that regulates immune responses, metabolic activity, and fetal development. They often raise blood sugar levels.

Growth Hormone

Secreted from the anterior pituitary gland, this hormone stimulates growth in humans.

Histamine

A hormone released in excess during allergic reactions causing swelling and inflammation of tissues.

Insulin

This hormone decreases blood sugar levels by facilitating the transport of glucose into the body cells where it is oxidized for energy or converted to glycogen for storage. It is antagonistic to glucagon.

Insulin-like growth factor

Hormones secreted from the liver due to stimulation from growth hormone, these regulate normal physiology and promote cell proliferation.

Luteinizing hormone

This hormone initiates ovulation in females while stimulating testosterone production in males.

Melatonin

Hormones that vary in a daily cycle, allowing the entrainment of circadian rhythms.

Mineralocorticoids

A large class of corticoids that directs the salt and water balance of the body. The primary one is aldosterone.

Oxytocin

Secreted by the posterior pituitary gland, this hormone facilitates maternal behaviors, orgasm, childbirth, maternal behaviors, and breastfeeding, among other things.

Parathormone

Secreted by the parathyroid glands, this hormone increases calcium levels in the blood by stimulating its release from bones. It is antagonistic to calcitonin.

Progesterone

A hormone that stimulates growth of the uterine lining and helps support pregnancy.

Prolactin

A hormone that stimulates the filling of the female breast with milk during breastfeeding.

Renin

Secreted from the kidneys, this peptide hormone regulates arterial blood pressure.

Thrombopoietin

This hormone regulates the production of platelets in the bone marrow.

Thymosin

This hormone stimulates T-cell action as part of the immune response.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

Hormones that regulate the endocrine function of the thyroid and causing it to secrete thyroxine.

Thyroxine

Secreted from the thyroid, this hormone controls the rates of metabolic activities and influences physical development.

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