Smith History Final Review

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137 terms

first ruler of mali

sundiata

second ruler of mali

mansa musa

charlemagne

restored glory to Rome

fief

land

vassal

anyone who accepted a fief

feudal system

exchanging land

castles

made to defend the land

serfs

peasants; legally tied

william the conqueror

won at battle of hastings against king Harold

magna carta

restricted kings power

piety

a person's level of devotion to his or her religion

crusades

war to take holy lands away from Muslims

political effect of crusades

kings had more power

religion effect of crusades

greek and latin church split forever

economical gain of crusade

more trade in east

who called the council of cleremont

commenus

who called for the crusades (person)

commenus

key players in the first crusade

pope urban, knights, peasants

saladin

muslim leader during 3rd crusade

Richard the lion hearted

christian leader in 3rd crusade

social effect of crusades

less tolerance for other religions

effect of bubonic plague

anti clericalism

romulus and remus

first romans

first dictator of Rome

Caesar

republic

elected officials governed the state

patricians

aristocratic families

plebeians

common people

magistrates

consuls

senate

a body of 300 members who advised elected officials

location of first punic war

rome and carthage

hannibal

leader of carthage

location of second punic war

italy

what happened the third punic war

destroy Carthage

Gracchi

brothers who advocate reforms to aid the plebeians but are killed by patricians

killers of Gracchi

senate

first triumvirate consists of

caesar, pompey, crassus

second triumvirate consists of

octavian (augustus), marc antony, lepidus

pax romana

roman peace under Augustus reign

gladiators

warriors that fought in the Hippodrome

paterfamilias

the head of the house

caligula

invaded Gaul

trajan

one of best 5 emperors after caesar, born out of italy

nero

good emperor at first, killed himself

mercenaries

hired soldiers from other places

diocletian

divided roman empire into 2

atilla the hun

leader of the huns

who wanted to restore rome after split?

justinian

theodora

justinian's wife

Hagia Sophia

famous mosque

Nika Rebellion

rebellion when Justinian wanted to leave but Theodora wouldn't let him

blues

higher class

greens

lower class

east west schism

splitting of the church

east church was

orthodox

west church

roman catholic

justinian code

a new uniform code of laws

draco

first major ruler of Greece

pericles

greatest ruler of athens

effect of pericles

strengthened democracy

delian league

group of city states who all agree to work together in an event of an attack; mainland league

affect of persian war for persia

lost prestige and strength

affect of persian war for athens

most powerful

socrates

great philosopher who questioned everything

plato

interested in govt, student of socrates

aristotle

made people question authority

Alexander the Great

invaded Egypt and Persia, ruler

Homer

famous poet or author

what 2 books were written by Homer?

Illiad and Odyssey

Helenistic

blending of Greek culture

Peloponessian Wars

fought between Sparta and Athens

Peloponessian League

formed for protection and security of Spartans

Trojan war

fought between Mycenaens and troy

birthplace of democracy

Athens

where were women and men equal?

sparta

neolithic

new stone age

paleolithic

old stone age

domestication

the taming of animals and put the to human use

agricultural revolution

the development of crop and animal raising as a food source among human communities to supplement hunting and gathering

catal huyuk

neolithic village located in Turkey

characteristics of a civilization

advanced cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, advanced technology, social classes

cultural diffusion

the spreading of culture from one society to another

fertile crescent

a region of farmland that curves from the Med Sea to the Persian Gulf

Location of Mesopotamia

Between Tigris and Euphrates

dynasty

a family of rulers whose right is to rule is hereditay

ziggurat

sumerian temple made of sun dried brick

polytheism

belief in more than one god

cuneiform

sumerian writing

Hammurabi

king of Babylon,

what is Hammurabi most famous for?

code of Laws

monotheism

belief in one god

Persian Empire

one of the largest and best governed empires in the ancient world

Zoroaster

founder of Zoroastrianism

Menes

ruler of Upper Egypt, founded Memphis

Pharaoh

ruler of Egypt

Theocracy

government based religion

Hatshepsut

a female ruler who was big on trade

Ramses II

built a bunch of buildings to himself, reigned egypt for 65 years

bureaucracy

organized government with a ruer and several lower rulers

Nile

main river in Egypt

Mummifications

process of making mummies

hieroglyphics

egyptian writing

Rosetta Stone

used to decipher hieroglyphics

Egyptian Social Structure

socially stratified

Nubia

civilization in the Steppes

Hinduism

follow Brahman

Hinduisms ultimate goal

Maksha

Buddhism

live without luxuries

Dynastic cycle

the pattern of decline, rise, and replacement of dynasties

mandate of heaven

ruler had divine approval

Confucianism

philosophy of Confucius, focus on family and ancestors,

Daoism

Founder: Laozi, focused on nature; yin and yang

Qin Dynasty

first unified Chinese Empire

who made the great wall of China

Qin Dynasty

who was the ruler of Qin Dynasty

shi huangdi

Han Dynasty

dynasty after Qin

who was the ruler of Han

Liu Bang

Filial Piety

obedience and devotion to parents and grandparents

silk roads

trade routes

Ashoka

ruler of India who spread Buddhism

Genghis Khan

A Mongolian general and emperor of the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, known for his military leadership and great cruelty. He conquered vast portions of northern China and southwestern Asia.

Pax Mongolia

Also known as the mongol peace. A time when global trade expanded due to the political stability provided by mongol rulers.

Muhammad

Abd Allah, raised by Uncle

wife of Muhammad

Khadija

Qu'ran

scriptures

name 5 pillars of islam

profession of faith, 5 daily prayers, alms, fasting, hajj

jihad

struggle for faith

Hijrah

Muhammad's journey from Mecca to Medina

Mecca

muslim holy place

caliph

successor

Umayyads

first Muslim dynasty

Sunni

a follower of the majority branch of Islam, which feels that successors to Muhammad are to be chosen by the Muslim community

Shiites

Muslims that believe that only direct descendants of Muhammad should become caliph

Caliphate

the office of a caliph

Abbasids

the dynasty after the Ummayads

Abu Bakr

good candidate to be Muhammad's successor

Legion

part of the military/army

twelve tables

most important set of laws in Rome

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