Math Terms

49 terms · USE TO STUDY FOR MATH EXAM!

Ratio

a comparison of two numbers by division

Rate

A ratio that compares two quantities measured in different units

two equal ratios

Percent

a ratio that compares a number to 100

Polygon

a closed plane figure with many straight sides

Triangle

a three-sided polygon

Isosceles

a triangle having two equal sides

Scalene

a triangle having three sides of different lengths

Equilateral triangle

a triangle having all sides congruent

Acute

an angle that is less than 90 degrees

Right angle

an angle that measures 90 degrees

Obtuse

between 90 and 180 degrees

a four-sided polygon

Parallelogram

A quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides

Trapezoid

a quadrilateral with two parallel sides

Square

a plane figure with four equal straight sides and four right angles.

Rectangle

a parallelogram with four right angles

Rhombus

a parallelogram with 4 congruent sides

Vertical Angles

two angles whose sides form two pairs of opposite rays

Complementary

sum of angles that equals 90 degrees

Supplementary

sum of angles that equals 180 degrees

Parallel

side by side lines that have the same distance continuously between them

Perpendicular

2 lines intersecting to form right angles

Congruent

identical in form; coinciding exactly when

Similar

same shape, but different size

Origin

the point of intersection of coordinate axes (0,0)

The four regions of a coordinate plane that are separated by the axes.

Linear equations

a graph that forms a straight line

Non-linear equations

a graph that does not form a straight line, it may curve

Slope

a ratio that describes the steepness of a line

Tree Diagram

a diagram used to show the total number of possible outcomes

Sample Space

the set of all possible outcomes

Theoretical probability

Probability based on comparing the number of possible favorable outcomes to the number of total possible outcomes

Experimental probability

Probability based on data from repeating an event (doing an experiment)

Compound probability

probability that deals with 2 or more things

Independent events

The outcome of one event does not affect the outcome of the second event

Expression

a group of symbols that make a mathematical statement - NO EQUAL SIGN

Equation

a mathematical statement that two expressions are equal- ALWAYS AN EQUAL SIGN

Coefficient

A number multiplied by a variable in an algebraic expression. ex. 4x+2, what is 4?

Variable

a symbol (like x or y) that is used in a mathematical expression used to represent a variable quantity

Exponent

a mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself

a number that is added to another number

Commutative Property

In multiplication or addition, the order of two numbers may be switched around and the answer is the same. Ex: a+b = b+a.

Associative Property

Changing the grouping of numbers will NOT change the value. For example: (7 + 4) + 8 = 7 + (4 + 8) also works with multiplication

a(b+c)=ab+ac

Identity Property

adding or multiplying by these numbers does not change the answer

Inverse Property

The sum of a number and its opposite is 0

Cross Products

A cross product of two fractions is the product of the numerator of one fraction with the denominator of the other fraction.

Equality

a symbolic expression of the fact that two quantities are equal; an equation.