What are the newborn screening tests?
"Please Check BBefore Going HHome"
-Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
What is VATER syndrome?
What is an average IQ?
What are the MCC of mental retardation in the US?
EtOH, Fragile X, Down's
What is Rubeola also known as?
What is Rubella also known as?
What is the APGAR test?
(Test at 1 & 5 min, normal >7)
Apperance (color): 2=pink, 1=acrocyanosis, 0=central cyanosis
Pulse: 2=>100, 1=80-100, 0=<80 (normal 120-160)
Grimace: 2=strong, 1=weak, 0=no grimace
Activity: 2=all extremities flexed, 1=partially flexed, 0=flacid
Respiration: 2=strong, 1=weak, 0=none
What is the MC eye infection the first day of life?
Clear discharge d/t silver nitrate
What is the MC eye infection the first week of life?
Gonorrhea → purulent discharge
What is the MC eye infection the second week of life
What is the MC eye infection the third week of life?
What are the causes of Hyperbilirubinemia?
Sepsis, ABO incompatibility, hypothyroidism, breastfeeding
What is the cause of symmetrically small babies?
Chromosomal abnormalities or TORCHS
What is the cause of asymmetrically small babies?
Poor blood supply spares brain → small body, normal head
What is the cause of large babies?
What is Milia?
Neonatal whiteheads on malar area d/t progesterone in utero
What is Nevus Flammeus?
"Stork bites" on back of neck, look like flames, AKA Port-Wine Stain
What are Hemangiomas?
Flat bood vessels
Tx: steroid injection if growing rapidly or laser surgery if on face
What is Seborrheic Dermatitis?
Red rash w/ oily skin & dry, flaky hairline
Tx: baby oil/shampoo
What are Mongolian spots?
Melanocytes on lower back (not child abuse)
Usu on Asain/Hispanics
What is Erythema Toxicum?
Total body rash, white wheal on red area, has eosinophils, looks like flea bites
What is Subgaleal Hemorrhage?
Prolonged jaundice in newborns d/t birthing trauma
What is Caput Succedaneum?
Under scalp (edema crosses suture lines)
What is Cephalohematoma?
Under bone (blood not cross suture line)
What is an Epstein's pearl?
White pearls on hard palate
What is persistent eye drainage since birth usually due to?
Tx: gentle massage
What are wide sutures due to?
What causes a Cleft lip?
Medial nasal prominence did not fuse
Reconstruct at 10 wk old
What causes a Cleft Palate?
Maxillary shelves did not fuse
→ recurrent otitis media (feed w/ long curved nipple)
What is the MCC of no red reflex?
What is the MCC of a white reflex?
What is the sign of a Clavicle Fracture?
Asymmetric Moro reflex
(MC broken in middle 1/3)
What is Gastroschisis?
Abdominal wall defect, off-center
What is a Nephroblastoma?
Kidney, "Wilm's" tumor, hemihypertrophy (atrophy of leg on side of tumor b/c blood supply redirected away from leg), aniridia (absence of iris), "triphasic" histology
What is a Neuroblastoma?
Adrenal medulla tumor, hypsarrhythmia (EEG pattern of abnormal interictal high amplitude waves and a background of irregular spikes), opsoclonus (uncontrolled eye movements), ↑VMA
What is Polyhydramnios?
Too much amniotic fluid, baby can't swallow
What are the MCC of Polyhydramnios?
NM problem: Wernig-Hoffman
GI problem: Duodenal atresia
What is Oligohydramnios?
Too little amniotic fluid, baby can't pee
What are the MCC of Oligohydramnios?
Abd muscle problem: Prune belly
Renal agenesis: Potter's syndrome
What is Fifth disease?
Parvo B19, Erythema infectiosum, "slapped cheeks," red lacy body rash, arthritis in mom, aplastic anemia, keep away from pregnant women for a few days, can go to school
What is Sixth disease?
Roseola, exanthema subitum (fever disappears, then rash appears)
What is Hand-Foot-Mouth disease?
Mouth ulcers → won't eat or drink, palm/sole rash, Coxsackie A virus
What is Measles = Rubeola?
(Paramyxovirus; multinucleated giant cells)
1. Cough, Coryza (thick rhinorrhea), Conjunctivitis
2. Koplik spot 24 hrs before rash
3. Morbilliform blotchy rash (spreads from head down, like a shower)
Complications: otitis media, demyelinating dz (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis)
What is Molloscum Contagiosum?
Flesh-colored papules w/ central dimple, perianal STD in adults
What is Mumps?
Parotiditis → red Stenson's duct (behind 3rd molar), lemons hurt
Complications: pancreatitis, oophoritis/orchitis, meningoencephalomyelitis
What is Otitis Media?
Fluid in middle ear
Commonly S. pneum
Tx: Amoxicillin or tube placement if chronic
What is Pityriasis Rosea?
Herald patch → migrates along skin lines
Christmas tree appearance
Tx: UV-B light
What is Rubella = German 3-day measles?
Trunk rash, lymphadenopathy behind ears, don't look sick
Complications: blueberry muffin rash, cataracts, deafness, PDA (pre-maturity), extramedullary erythropoiesis
Don't give vaccine to pregnant women!
How is smallpox different from chickenpox?
Smallpox is on face, same stage of development, fever
What is Varicella = Chickenpox?
On trunk, different stages of devo
Complications: skin infections, varicella pneumonia (lethal)
1. Red macule
2. Clear vesicle on red dot
4. Scab (not infectious)
What is Zellweger's?
What is the MCC of delayed speech development?
What are the signs of child abuse?
- Multiple ecchymoses
- Retinal hemorrhage
- Epidural/Subdural hemorrhage
- Spiral fractures (twisted)
- Multiple fractures in different healing stages
What should you rule out when child abuse is suspected?