summary of terms physics exam

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Fact

a phenomenon about which competent observers who have made a series of observations are in agreement with

Hypothesis

An educated guess

Law

a general hypothesis or statement about the relationship of natural quiantities that has been tested over and over and has not been contridicted

Law

Also known as principal

psuedoscience

Fake science that pretends to be real science

Scientific method

principals and procedures for the systematic pursuit of knowledge

Theory

a synthesis of a large body of information that encompasses well-tested and verified hypothesis.

Newtons first law of motion

Every object continues in its state of rest, or in uniform motion in a straight line, unless compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it.

Inertia

the property of things to resist change

Force

a push or a pull

Net force

The vector sum of forces that act on an object

Mechanical equilibrium

The state of an object or a system to of pbjects where there is no change in motion.

Equilibrium rule

For anything in equilibrium the sum of the forces is zero

Speed

how fast something moves

velocity

The speed and direction of an object

Vector quantity

has both magnitude and acceleration

Acceleration

The rate at which velocity changes

Free Fall

motion under the influence of only gravity.

Friction

The resistance force that opposes motion

mass

The amount of matter in an object

weight

the force due to gravity

Kilogram

unit of mass

Newton

a unit of force

Volume

the quantity of space an object takes up

Newtons second law

The acceleration of an object is directly porportional to the net force acting on the object

Force

any influence that can cause an object to accelerate

Terminal speed

when air resistance is equal to weight in a falling object

Terminal velocity

when direction is specified and air resistance is equal to weight in a falling object

Newtons third law

Whenever one object exerts a force on the other object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force

Vector quantity

both magnitude and direction

Scalar quantity

just magnitude and no direction

Vector

an arrow drawn to represent a vector quantity

Resultant

The net result of two or more combined vectors.

momentum

The product of the mass of an object and its velocity

Impulse

The product of force acting on an object and the time during which it acts.

Law of conservation of momentum

momentum before=momentum after

Elastic collision

when there is no heat and the objects do not stick together

Inelastic collision

when there is heat and the two objects stick together

power

p=work/time

Energy

the property of a system that enables it to do work

Mechanical energy

Energy due to the position of something

potential energy

the energy that something poses because of its position

Kinetic energy

energy of motion

conservation of energy

energy cannot be created nor destroyed but simply transformed into something else

machine

a device that increases or decreases force

conservation of energy for machines

The work output cannot exceed the work input

lever

simple machine that allows pivot

efficiency

the percentage of work put into a machine that is converted into a useful output.

Tangential speed

circular motion

rotational speed

number of rotations per unit of time

rotational inertia

its resistance to change of its state of rotation

torque

t=lever arm x force

center of mass

average position of mass

equilibrium

the state of an object when it is not acted upon by a net force or net torque

centripetal force

force that causes an object to move in a circle

centrifugal force

imaginary force ex. you when a car turns around a corner

angular momentum

the product of a bodys rotational inertia and rotational velocity about a particular axis.

conservation of angular momentum

when no external torque acts on an object, no change in angular momentum can occur.

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