# summary of terms physics exam

### 59 terms by 13walton

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### Fact

a phenomenon about which competent observers who have made a series of observations are in agreement with

### Hypothesis

An educated guess

### Law

a general hypothesis or statement about the relationship of natural quiantities that has been tested over and over and has not been contridicted

### Law

Also known as principal

### psuedoscience

Fake science that pretends to be real science

### Scientific method

principals and procedures for the systematic pursuit of knowledge

### Theory

a synthesis of a large body of information that encompasses well-tested and verified hypothesis.

### Newtons first law of motion

Every object continues in its state of rest, or in uniform motion in a straight line, unless compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it.

### Inertia

the property of things to resist change

a push or a pull

### Net force

The vector sum of forces that act on an object

### Mechanical equilibrium

The state of an object or a system to of pbjects where there is no change in motion.

### Equilibrium rule

For anything in equilibrium the sum of the forces is zero

### Speed

how fast something moves

### velocity

The speed and direction of an object

### Vector quantity

has both magnitude and acceleration

### Acceleration

The rate at which velocity changes

### Free Fall

motion under the influence of only gravity.

### Friction

The resistance force that opposes motion

### mass

The amount of matter in an object

### weight

the force due to gravity

unit of mass

a unit of force

### Volume

the quantity of space an object takes up

### Newtons second law

The acceleration of an object is directly porportional to the net force acting on the object

### Force

any influence that can cause an object to accelerate

### Terminal speed

when air resistance is equal to weight in a falling object

### Terminal velocity

when direction is specified and air resistance is equal to weight in a falling object

### Newtons third law

Whenever one object exerts a force on the other object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force

### Vector quantity

both magnitude and direction

### Scalar quantity

just magnitude and no direction

### Vector

an arrow drawn to represent a vector quantity

### Resultant

The net result of two or more combined vectors.

### momentum

The product of the mass of an object and its velocity

### Impulse

The product of force acting on an object and the time during which it acts.

### Law of conservation of momentum

momentum before=momentum after

### Elastic collision

when there is no heat and the objects do not stick together

### Inelastic collision

when there is heat and the two objects stick together

w=fd

p=work/time

### Energy

the property of a system that enables it to do work

### Mechanical energy

Energy due to the position of something

### potential energy

the energy that something poses because of its position

energy of motion

### conservation of energy

energy cannot be created nor destroyed but simply transformed into something else

### machine

a device that increases or decreases force

### conservation of energy for machines

The work output cannot exceed the work input

### lever

simple machine that allows pivot

### efficiency

the percentage of work put into a machine that is converted into a useful output.

circular motion

### rotational speed

number of rotations per unit of time

### rotational inertia

its resistance to change of its state of rotation

### torque

t=lever arm x force

### center of mass

average position of mass

### equilibrium

the state of an object when it is not acted upon by a net force or net torque

### centripetal force

force that causes an object to move in a circle

### centrifugal force

imaginary force ex. you when a car turns around a corner

### angular momentum

the product of a bodys rotational inertia and rotational velocity about a particular axis.

### conservation of angular momentum

when no external torque acts on an object, no change in angular momentum can occur.

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