Who was Muhammad and what was the significance of the angel Gabriel's message to him?
Muhammad received revelations from Gabriel. He was called a prophet and repeated the word of Gabriel and started Islam.
Describe the reaction to Muhammad's revelations in the Arab World.
People did not immediately catch on to the religion. After months of preaching, Muhammad only had 3 followers, but slowly it spread.
Discuss the 5 Pillars of Islam
-Belief: 1 God (Allah), 1 Prophet (Muhammad)
-Prayer: 5 times a day
-Pilgrimage: Hajj to Makkah
Define the shari'ah law and describe its impact on Islamic civilization.
The shari'ah is a code of laws developed after the death of Muhammad. It impacts civilizations because it sets laws to regulate their daily life.
Who were the Umayyads?
They Umayyads were the people who lived in the Umayyad dynasty. This dynasty was started by Mu'awiyah started by decided the caliphate.
Define the reasons for the Shia/Sunni split in Islam.
The reasons for the Shia/Sunni split were that the Shia only accepted only the descendants of Ali as the true rulers of Islam, but the Sunni accepted the Umayyads as rulers of Islam.
Who were the Abbasids?
The Abbasids were the people of the Abbasid dynasty, which was started by Muhammad's uncle, Abu al-Abbas, overthrew the Umayyad dynasty.
Discuss the major contribution to world knowledge by the Islamic scholars we discussed in Ch. 6.
How did the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties restore order after the collapse of the Han dynasty?
The Sui Dynasty completed the Grand Canal, linking the north and the south and unifying the empire.
The Tang Dynasty created a more stable economy by giving land to the peasant and breaking up the power of the owners of large estates. They also restored the civil service exam to recruit officials.
The Song Dynasty ruled during a period of economic prosperity and cultural achievements.
Why is the Tang Dynasty often referred to as a golden age for China?
During the Tang Dynasty, the rulers created a stable economy and improved the governmental system. They also restored the power of China.
How did both the Song and the Tang dynasties restore effective government in China?
How did religious principles in China change between the Han and the Yuan dynasties?
Buddhism was brought into China. It became popular along with Daoism, but it was criticized for being a foreign religion and it denied many Confucian principles, virtues of the Chinese state. Confucianism was revived, and became Neo-Confucianism.
Why is the period between the Tang and Ming dynasties considered a great age of Chinese literature?
The invention of the printing press made education more accessible and literature became more popular and widespread. Poetry also flourished. Two great poets were Li Bo, the happy one, and Du Fu, the depressed one.
What role did the Tokugawa play in bringing about stability in Japan?
What was the impact of the introduction of Islam to India?
The introduction of Islam led many rulers to try to forcefully convert Hindus to Muslims. This led to many years of distrust and tension between Hindu and Islam.
Compare and contrast the Mogul leaders Akbar and Aurangzeb.
Akbar was generous and kind hearted. He loved art and architecture, music and dances, he was equal to everyone, the Hindus and the Muslims. He had appointed many hindus on high positions in his court. Akbar made many reforms, mostly in favor of the Hindus. Akbar tired his best to bring the Muslims and Hindus together although for sometime there was peace amongst them but it didn't last very long. He expanded the Mogul empire to cover most of India.
Aurangzeb on the other hand was a total opposite. He destroyed many Hindu temples and imposed tax on them.. He was also a very good administrator. Aurangzeb, unlike his ancestors did not love architecture and not many monuments are credited to him. Aurangzeb disliked music and banned any form of music or dance in his kingdom. The religious policies of Aurangzeb widened the gap between Hindus and Muslims. He created a war to try to make everyone Muslim, but the war failed.
Describe how the Germanic tribes, especially the Franks transformed Western Europe after the collapse of Rome.
Because Clovis, converted to Christianity, he won support of the Roman Catholic Church and got power. He established the Frankish kingdom from the Pyrenees to the German lands.
Define the role of the Roman Catholic Church after the fall of the Roman Empire.
The Church played a very important part in the growth of the new European civilization. It was the center of social life. The Church had both religious and political power.
What was the Carolingian Empire and what was Charlemagne's role in its development?
The Carolingian Empire was created by Charlemagne. Through this empire, he came to be known as the emperor of the Romans.
Discuss feudalism and the manorial economy and its impact on Western Europe's society.
Feudalism became the new political and social order in Europe. It started because of the danger of the world. People needed someone to protect them.
Describe how monarchs in England and France began to extend royal power and build strong states.
William of Normandy, England: took the first census to develop the system of taxation and royal courts
Henry II: increased the number of criminal cases tried in the king's court and devised means for taking property cases from local cases to royal courts; expanded the king's power; established a common law
Philip II Augustus: expanded income and power by taking control of Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Aquitane
Philip IV: created the Estates-General, the first French Parliament
Define the Byzantine Empire and discuss how it was able to preserve and transmit Greek and Roman culture
The Byzantine Empire, which came to be known as the Eastern Orthodox Church, was ruled by Justinian. His most important contribution was the codification of Roman law. These laws were the basis of Imperial law in the Eastern Roman Empire and became the basis for much of the legal system in Europe. The Empire was both a Greek and Christian state. Greek replaced Latin as the official language.
Discuss the various causes and effects of the Crusades.
i. Years of distrust between Christians and Muslims
ii. Holy Lands occupied by Muslims
iii. Byzantine Emperor asked Christians for help against the Seljuk Turks, Muslims
i. Breaking down of feudalism
ii. Increased the wealth and power of the Papacy
iii. Rise in trade
How did the agricultural revolution transform medieval society in Europe and give rise to a new economy?
The agricultural revolution increased population greatly because of the abundance of food. Trade was increased and from this came a money economy and commercial capitalism. Cities and villages became more developed.
Define the term Papal Monarch and discuss the impact of the Church on politics in Western Europe.
A Papal Monarch had control over everyone through the church, even other rulers. The Church asserted that it had control and authority over all others. King Henry IV did not agree and from their conflict came the Concordat of Worms. Under this agreement, a bishop in Germany was first elected by Church officials.
Discuss the impact of the new religious orders in Europe in the late 1000's and the early 1100's.
The Cistercian order was founded by a group of monks who were unhappy with the lack of discipline at their monastery. They became a strict order that took religion to the people outside the monastery instead of staying inside. The Franciscan order was founded by Francis of Assisi. The Franciscan monks took vows of absolute poverty and lived by working and begging for food. The Dominican order was created to defend Church teachings and attack heretics.
Compare and contrast Romanesque and Gothic Architecture.
Romanesque architecture had long, round stone arched vaults and massive pillars and walls. There were little windows, and they were very dark on the inside. Gothic architecture had ribbed vaults and pointed arches. Flying buttresses helped the churches become very high. They had thin wills with stained glass windows and lots of light.
Discuss the rise of universities in Europe and define scholasticism.
Students were able to stuffy the liberal arts and after studying that for 10 years, they could earn a doctor of law, medicine, or theology. Scholasticism tried to reconcile faith and reason.
Define vernacular literature.
Literature written in the language of everyday speech in a particular region
Describe the social and economic effects of the Black Plague on Europe.
i. Rise in anti-Semitism
ii. Rise in alternative religions to Christianity
iii. Decrease in faith in Church
i. Decline of trade
ii. Rise of price of labor
iii. End of serfdom
What was the major cause of the Hundred Years War and discuss its impact on Europe.
France wanted the duchy of Gascony in France, which was possessed by England. When King Philip IV of France seized the duchy, England declared war on France. It resulted in the transformation of England and France from feudal kingdoms to two separate nations with distinct cultures.