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duodenum

The first part of the small intestine is the
a. duodenum.
b. ileum.
c. colon.
d. cecum.
e. jejunum.

chyme

The stomach breaks down food into an acidic liquid called
a. pepsin.
b. chyme.
c. amylase.
d. bile.

proteins

The essential amino acids the body needs must come from eating
a. proteins.
b. fats.
c. carbohydrates.
d. water.

food

The energy to perform cellular work, as well as the materials from which body cells and tissues are made, comes from
a. cellulose.
b. oxygen.
c. food.
d. blood.

nutrients

Substances that are needed by the body to build tissue and fuel cellular work are called
a. enzymes.
b. nutrients.
c. ATP.
d. Calories.

absorption of water

The primary function of the large intestine is
a. storage of feces.
b. retention of water.
c. manufacture of vitamin K.
d. digestion of fats.
e. absorption of water.

hydrochloric acid

The acid released in the stomach is
a. carbonic acid.
b. hydrochloric acid.
c. nitric acid.
d. sulfuric acid.
e. phosphoric acid.

esophagus

What "food tube" carries food between the pharynx and the stomach?
a. small intestine
b. epiglottis
c. esophagus
d. large intestine

large intestine

Water is absorbed from undigested material in the body primarily by the
a. bladder.
b. gallbladder.
c. large intestine.
d. pancreas.

cecum

What structure is located at the junction of the small and large intestines?
a. cecum
b. rectum
c. anus
d. villus
e. pharynx

stomach

The digestion of proteins begins in the
a. stomach.
b. pancreas.
c. small intestine.
d. large intestine.
e. esophagus.

carbohydrates

The digestion of which class of foods begins in the mouth?
a. carbohydrates
b. proteins
c. lipids
d. amino acids
e. nucleic acids

2200-2500

About how many Calories does the average teenager need per day?
a. 100 to 200
b. 500 to 600
c. 2,200 to 2,500
d. 10,000

peristalsis

Which process propels the food down the esophagus into the stomach?
a. glycolysis
b. plasmolysis
c. emulsion
d. peristalsis
e. all of these

epiglottis closes trachea leading to the lungs

During the process of swallowing, the
a. esophagus is temporarily closed by the glottis.
b. epiglottis closes the trachea leading to the lungs.
c. pharynx restricts food entry to the esophagus.
d. epiglottis seals the esophagus.
e. none of these

helps in the digestion of fats

Bile
a. has no effect on digestion.
b. helps in the digestion of fats.
c. helps in the digestion of carbohydrates.
d. helps in the digestion of proteins.
e. helps in the digestion of both carbohydrates and proteins.

amino acids

Proteins are polymers made of
a. minerals.
b. fats.
c. amino acids.
d. vitamins.

duodenum

Ducts from the pancreas and liver enter the
a. stomach.
b. colon.
c. duodenum.
d. jejunum.
e. ileum.

absorption

The process that moves nutrients into the blood or lymph is
a. absorption.
b. assimilation.
c. digestion.
d. ingestion.
e. all of these

minerals

Inorganic ions with diverse functions in the body are called
a. lipids.
b. proteins.
c. vitamins.
d. minerals.

all of these

Sphincters
a. are circular muscles.
b. prevent backflow.
c. are smooth muscles.
d. are found at the entrance and exit of the stomach.
e. all of these

anorexia

An eating disorder characterized by self-starvation is
a. undernutrition.
b. malnutrition.
c. anorexia.
d. bulimia.

fats, oils, and sweets

Which of the following food groups should make up only the smallest part of the diet?
a. fats, oils, and sweets
b. milk, yogurt, and cheese
c. vegetables
d. fruit

amino acids

People who do not eat meat (vegetarians) must choose their food carefully to get the necessary
a. vitamins.
b. minerals.
c. carbohydrates.
d. amino acids.
e. fatty acids.

small intestine

The digestion of fats mostly occurs in the
a. stomach.
b. pancreas.
c. small intestine.
d. lymph vascular system.
e. liver.

food

A car is to gasoline as your body is to
a. your stomach.
b. your kidneys.
c. food.
d. enzymes.

small intestine

Of the following, the greatest amount of nutrient absorption takes place in the
a. stomach.
b. small intestine.
c. colon.
d. pancreas.
e. esophagus.

muscle contractions

What does mechanical digestion in the stomach involve?
a. absorption of nutrients by villi
b. pepsin and bile
c. muscle contractions
d. bile and pancreatic fluid

gizzard

Animals without teeth, such as earthworms and birds, have an organ that accomplishes the same action as
teeth. What is it?
a. beak
b. pharynx
c. gizzard
d. cloaca
e. dentine

esophagus

Which of the following organs of the digestive system is different from the other four because it does NOT produce any secretions that aid in the digestive process?
a. stomach
b. liver
c. esophagus
d. pancreas
e. salivary gland

F; chemical

True or False?
Digestive enzymes are necessary for mechanical digestion.

F; feces

True or False?
Undigested food material and other waste products make up the bolus.

F; vitamins

True or False?
Organic molecules (NOT macromolecules) required in relatively small amounts are called essential fatty acids.

T

True or False?
Essential nutrients are materials that must be ingested because your cells cannot construct them from other molecules.

T

True or False?
Digestive enzymes found in the small intestine break down undigested fats.

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