having to do with or related to the continents.
half a globe or sphere, as in the Earth's northern and southern hemisphere.
floodplain on which flooding rivers have deposited rich soil.
spanish for "high plain," a region in Peru and Bolivia encircled by the Andes peaks.
a group or chain of islands.
steep cliff or slope between a higher and lower land surface.
a particular space with physical and human meaning.
government in which a single individual passes the power and authority to rule.
member of the nomadic desert peoples of North Africa and Southwest Asia.
plant and animal waste used especially as a source of fuel.
the exact position of a place on the earth's surface.
any illegal market where scarce or illegal goods are sold, usually at high prices.
neutral territory between rival powers.
a center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward.
one of two days (March 21/ September 23) on which the sun's directly above the Equator, making day and night equal in length.
the science of mapmaking.
a Latin American political leader from the late 1800's on, often a military dictator.
type of vegetation made up of dense forests of shrubs and short trees, common in Mediterranean climate.
underground water-locating layers of porous rock, sand, or gravel.
under communism, a large, state-owned farm on which farmers recieved wages plus a share of products and profits; a kolkhoz
economic system in which economic decisions about production and distribution are made by some central authority.
an area where a tide meets a river current.
goods produced for sale.
trees that have cones and needle-shaped leaves, including many evergreens that keep their foliage throughout the winter.
precipitation carrying large amounts of dissolved acids which damages buildings, forests, and crops, and kills wildlife.
parallel chains or ranges of mountains
storm with heavy rains and high winds that blow in a circular pattern around an area of low atmospheric pressure.
a business that employs workers in their homes.
farm crop grown to be sold or traded rather than used by the farm family.
ring-shaped island formed by coral building up along the rim of an underwater volcano.
a funnel-shaped column of spray and mist whirling over an ocean or lake.
trees, usually broad-leaved such as oak and maple, that lose their leaves in autumn.
the study of weather and weather forecasting.
the removal of salt from sea water to make it usable for drinking and farming.
society based on equality in which workers would control industrial production.
process in which arable land is turned into desert.
a central point and the surrounding territory linked to it.
country in the process of becoming industrialized.
suitable for growing crops.
(parallels) lines that circle the earth parallel to the Equator and measure the distance north or south of the Equator in degrees.
a frequently windless area near the Equator.
form of government in which powers are divided between the national government and state or provincial government.
the term scientists used to describe the activities of continental drift and magma flow which create many of Earth's physical features.
How long does it take the earth to make one rotation on its axis?
One rotation on the earth's axis takes 24 hours.
How long does it take the earth to make one rotation around the sun?
One rotation around the sun takes 365 days.
What makes the seasons?
The earth's rotations and revolutions make the seasons; sprins, summer, autumn, and winter. The seasons cycle through annually.
What does the cycle of the seasons depend on?
The cycle of the seasons depends on the position of the earth in accordance with the sun.
a region defined by a common characteristics.
the process whereby glaciers form and spread.
in islam, the yearly pilgrimage to Mecca.
in the desert, a streambed that is dry except during a heavy rain.
the complex community of interdependent living things in a given environment.
human geography (cultural geography)
the study of human activites and their relationships to the cultural and physical environments.
native to a place
in Hindu, the sum of good and bad actions in one's present and past lives.
long, steep-sided glacial valley now filled by sea water.
fine, yellowish-brown top soil made up of particles of silt and clay, usually carried by the wind.
an economic system based on free enterprise, in which business are privately owned, and production and prices are determined by supply and demand.
a crack in the earth's surface created by shifting.
vast, treeless plains in cold northern climates, characterized by permafrost and small, low plants.
tropic of cancer
23 1/2° N latitude, the nothernmost point on the earth to recieve direct rays of the sun.
belief in one god.
piles of rocky debris left by melting glaciers.
Russian term for a new "openness," part of Mikhail Gorbachev's reform planes.
system of government in which a small group holds power.
the raising of livestock.
In Russian, "restructuring"; part of Gorbachev's plan for reforming Soviet government.
a square building in Mecca that contains a sacred black stone and is the point to which muslims turn in prayer, and the destination of Islamic Pilgrimage.
natural mineral containing chemical compounds often used in fertilizers.
the plant life of a region.
place united by specific characteristics.
a violent tropical storm that forms in the Pacific Ocean, usually in late summer.
location in relation to other places.
an economy in which the government supports and regulates enterprise through decisions that affect the market place.
the source of river waters.
the study of Earth's physical features.
wide, grassy plains of Eurasia; also, similar semiarid climate regions elsewhere.
a science that deals with Earth and its life.
a process by which mountains can form as sea plates dive beneath continental plates.
chemical product derived from petroleum or natural gas.
imaginary line that runs around the earth halfway between the north and south poles; used as the starting point to measure degress of north and south latitude.
Russian term for the vast subartic forest, mostly evergreens, that covers much of Russia and Siberia.
population density map
a map which shows the average number of people in a square mile or square kilometer.
a system in which tradition and custom control all economic activity; exists in only a few parts of the world today.
pattern formed as the lines of latitude and longitude cross one another.
geographic information system
computer tools for processing and organizing details and satellite images with other pieces of information.
Japanese term used for a huge sea wave caused by an undersea earthquake.
lines, or meridians, that circle the earth from pole to pole.