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genetic code for the HIV virus

carried on a short length of RNA

cancer

A disease that occurs when a group of cells in the body reproduce without restraint

DNA fingerprinting

analysis of DNA in human tissue

genetic engineering techniques

developed strawberries that are resistant frost

the colon bacterium, E. coli

used to manufacture insulin

nucleus

where DNA that is modified in genetic engineering procedures

restriction enzyme

cuts a DNA molecule into several pieces

CADD

Computer Assisted Drug Design

double-blind experiment

neither the experimenter nor the subject knows who is given the placebo

Dr. Ian Wilmut

The British biologist who cloned a sheep

polymerase chain reaction

creates numerous copies of select strands of a DNA molecule

Cloning

the process of producing a new individual entirely from the DNA of another individual

"in vitro"

performed outside of a living cell

"in vivo"

performed within a living cell

p53

gene involved in the production of cancer

placebo

substance substituted in place of a drug being tested

variable number tandem repeat"

region of repetition of a nonsense codon

DNA fingerprinting

analysis of variable number tandem repeats

T cells

HIV virus invades

ribosomes

Protein synthesis occurs at this organelle

replication

The copying of the DNA molecule prior to mitosis is called

ribose

sugar is found in RNA

transfer RNA

Amino acid molecules are carried by this form of RNA

uracil

bonds to adenine

codon

A unit of the genetic code consisting of three nucleotides

adenine

bonds to thymine

guanine

bonds to cytosine

cytosine

bonds to guanine

thymine

bonds to adenine

deoxyribose

sugar is found in DNA

messenger RNA

transcribes the DNA code for protein synthesis

transcription

copying of the DNA code onto RNA

translation

production of a polypeptide molecule according to the DNA code

mutation

Any change in the DNA molecule

Nucleotides

building block of nucleic acids

virus

short length of RNA or DNA wrapped in protein coat

dominant

trait that is always expressed

recessive

trait not expressed in the presence of a dominant trait

Australopithecus

extinct organism, evolutionary ancestor to humans

Cenozoic Period

the age of mammals

Stanley Miller

conducted experiments involving the origin of life on the early Earth

Luis Alvarez

proposed that the extinction of the dinosaurs was probably caused by the collision of an asteroid with the Earth.

Cambrian Period

hard outer skeleton characteristic of crabs, lobsters, and grasshoppers appeared during this period.

Charles Darwin

wrote On the Origin of Species

Evolution

change in living organisms over time

Proterozoic

longest geologic era

natural selection

mechanism for evolution of living organisms as proposed by Darwin

living things first appeared on Earth

approximately4 billion years ago

extinct

Organisms that have lived in the past but have disappeared forever from the Earth

Proterozoic

era cells first appear

cyanobacteria

produce oxygen during photosynthesis

Punctuated equilibrium

evolutionary changes usually occur in short bursts, separated by long periods of stability

cytochrome C

One of the universally possessed proteins that has been analyzed extensively for biochemical evidence for evolution

vestigial organ

an example of a appendix

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