Chapter 22 and 23 Study Guide

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If you were to move from around sea level to a much higher altitude, your body would respond with

develops capillaries, your red blood cell count goes up, lungs get stronger.

The reason animals need a continuous supply of oxygen is to

preform cellular respiration

A waste product of respiration is

CO2, H2O

The body structure where gas exchange occurs is called the

lung -> alveoli

Animals that effectively use their body surface for gas exchange must

live in wet or watery places

Which of the following is likely to have the lowest concentration of 02?

warm and salty water

The chief advantage of gas exchange in water is that

water can remove 80% of oxygen available instead of 25%

In the countercurrent exchange system of fish gills,

maintains a concentration gradient that favors oxygen diffusion, fluid move counter to eachother, and temperature regulation

Which of the following animals requires the largest and most complex lungs proportional to its overall body size?

birds and mammals

Which of the following options correctly lists the direction of carbon dioxide travel as it leaves the
body?

alveoli-> branchioles-> bronchi-> trachea-> larynx-> pharynx-> nasal cavity

Which of the following is a function of the nasal cavities in humans?

filter, warm, humidify, sanple for odor

What name is given to the sheet of muscle that helps move air in and out of the lungs?

diaphragm

Within the lungs, gas exchange occurs across

alveoli

The ________is a passageway shared by both food and air.

pharynx

Why do cigarette smokers cough more than nonsmokers?

The respiratory systems attempts to clean mucus no longer moved by cilia

Inhalation in humans is achieved by

The rib cage expands as muscle between the ribs contract

When you are breathing normally, exhalation results mainly from

relaxation of rib muscles and the diapragm

Compared to the vital capacity, how much air can lungs actually hold?

more than the vital capacity because there is always a left over portion of oxygen

When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes leads initially to the urge to
breathe again?

increase in CO2 levels of blood and pH drops

What part of the human brain contains the primary breathing control center?

medulla oblangata and pons

Medullary breathing centers directly sense and respond to

the pH of the blood

Oxygen moves from blood into the interstitial fluid and then to body cells because

it diffuses from a region of higher partial pressure to lower partial pressure

Oxygen is mostly transported through the body

by hemoglobin

Most C02 is transported to the lungs

by hemoglobin

What prompts a newborn baby to start to breathe?

the blood pH level falls due to a build up of CO2

Which of the following statements regarding circulatory systems is true?

it transports oxygen and CO2, distributes nutrients to cells, and conveys waste products of metabolism for disposal

Which of the following is a function of the circulatory system?

Carry oxygen from lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs there by aiding in the exchange of gases. Supply of oxygen is needed for proper functioning of the cells. Removal of carbon dioxide is also equally essentials it becomes toxic to cells when present in high amount.

The two basic types of circulatory systems that have evolved over time are

open and closed

Which of the following animals has a single circuit of blood flow and two heart chambers?

fish

Which of the following animals has a three-chambered heart?

frogs, crocodiles, turtles, lizards, snakes

In mammals, blood returning from the head will pass through the________ just before entering the
right atrium.

superior vena cava

In mammals, which of the following vessels transports oxygenated blood from the lung back to the
heart?

pulmonary vein

Oxygen-poor blood is carried from the heart of a mammal to the lungs via the

pulmonary artery

Blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs by the

right ventricle

From the left ventricle, oxygen-rich blood flows through the

aorta

The largest blood vessel in the human body is the

aorta

During which phase of the heartbeat does the heart fill with blood?

diastole

The location of the heart's pacemaker is a specialized region of cardiac muscle called the

SA (sinotrial) node

The main function of the AV node is to

relay and contract signals from a pacemaker, and delay the signal 0.1 seconds so the atria have contracted and emitted

Myocardial infarction, also called a heart attack,

is the damage/death of cardia muscle tissue because blood vessels from the heart get clogged

Which of the following is the cause of 40% of all deaths in the United States?

Cardiovascular disease

Arteries are distinguished from veins based on the following features

thicker connective tissue, higher blood pressure, and no valves present

Which blood vessels have the thinnest walls?

capillaries

In humans, which blood vessels have valves?

veins

Which of the following can contribute to high blood pressure?

cholesterol, genetics, smoking, alcohol, obesity, salt, and a lack of excercise

The diameter of a capillary is about the same as that of

a red blood cell

The liquid part of blood is called

plasma

Cells make up about what percentage of total blood volume?

45%

How long do human red blood cells circulate in the blood before they wear out and have to be
replaced?

3-4 months

An adult human's red blood cells are formed in the

bone marrow

The voice box is defined as?

larynx

A tube dorsal to the trachea is?

the esophagus

The smallest conducting passageways in the lungs are?

bronchioles

The air sacs within the lungs are?

alveoli

The heart chamber with the thickest wall is the?

left ventricle

Heart chamber that contains the sinoatrial node

right atrium

The four pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood to this chamber

right atrium

This chamber sends blood into the aorta

left ventricle

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