Muscles and Muscle Tissue

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a sarcomere is the distance between two

z discs

contains only the actin filaments

i bands

the thicker filaments are the

myosin filaments

both actin and myosin are found in the

a band

serves as the actual trigger for muscle contraction by removing the inhibition of the troponin molecules

calcium ions

a neurotransmitter released at motor end plates by the axon terminals

acetylcholine

a metabolic pathway that provides for a large amount of ATP per glucose because oxygen is used

acetylchlinesterase

normally stored in the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum

calcium ions

used to convert ADP to ATP by transfer of high energy phosphate group

cratine phosphate

destroys ACH

acetycholnesterase

muscle fibers degenerate and atrophy

muscular dystrophy

which muscle cells have the greatest ability to regenerate

smooth

most muscles contain

a mixture of fiber type

fatigues muscle cells that recover rapidly are the products of

intense exercise of short duration

the strongest muscle contractions are normally achieved by

increasing the stimulation up to the maximal stimulus

recruited later in muscle stimulation when contractile strength increases

motor units with larger, less excitable neurons

in skeletal muscle contraction, calcium apparently acts to

remove the blocking action tropomyosin

calcium ions bind to the

troponin molecule in skeletal muscle cells

myoglobin

stores oxygen in muscle cells

an elaborate network of membranes in skeletal muscle cells that functions in calcium storage is the

sarcoplasmic reticulum

a sarcomere is

the area between two z discs

the period during which the events of excitation contraction coupling occur

latent

creatine phosphate functions in the muscle cell by

storing energy that will be transferred to ADP to resythesize ATP

after nervous stimulation of the muscle cell has ceased, the calcium

level in the cytoplasm drops

the major function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle contraction is to

regulate intracellular calcium concentration

the striations of skeletal muscle cell are produced by

the arrangement of myofilaments

composed of myosin

thick filaments

during muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites

actin filaments

surrounds the individual muscle cell

endomysium

smooth muscle that act like skeletal muscles but are controlled by autonomic nerves and hormones are

multiunit muscles

rigor mortis occurs because

no ATP is available to release attached actin and myosin molecules

act as stimuli to initiate muscle contraction

hormonal activity, neurotransmitters, a change in the pH of muscle

aponeurosis refers to

a sheetlike indirect attachment to a skeletal element

the warm up period required of athletes in order to bring their muscles to peak performance is called

treppe

the main effect of the warm up period of athletes as the muscle contractions increase in strength is to

enhance the availability of calcium and the efficiency of enzyme systems

when a muscle is unable to respond to stimuli temporarily, it is in

refractory period

in an isotonic contraction, the muscle

changes in length and moves the "load"

the muscle cell membrane is called the

sarcolema

smooth muscle contracts

in a twisting way

contraction of smooth muscle is different from skeletal muscle in that

the site of calcium regulation differes

the cells of single unit visceral muscle

exhibit spontaneous action potentials

certain smooth muscle cells can actually divide

to increase their numbers

characteristics of smooth muscle

lacks troponin, no sarcomeres, has noncontractile intermediate filaments that attach to dense bodies within the cell

muscle tissue properties

contractibility, extensibility, and excitability

the giant protein titin maintains the organization of the

a band assisting in muscle stretching

striated muscle cells are

long and cylindrical with many nuclei

an anaerobic metabolic pathway that results in the production of two net atp's per glucose plus two pyruvic acid molecules is

glycosis

muscle tone is

a state of sustained partial contraction

the sliding filament model of contraction involves

actin and myosin sliding past each other and partially overlap

after nervous stimulation stops, ACh in the synaptic cleft is prevented from continuing stimulation of contraction by

acetylcholinesterase destroying the ACh

muscle tension

remains relatively constant during isotonic contraction

the most distinguishing characteristic of muscle tissue is

the ability to transform chemical energy into mechanical energy

red muscle fibers are during

a long relaxing swim

has only one nucleus, no sarcomeres and rare gap junctions

multiunit smooth muscle

if muscle was stretched to the point where thick and thin filaments no longer overlapped

no muscle tension would be generated

claudation might be called

limping

the end of the muscle that typically moves when a muscle contracts is called

the insertion

in the synaptic cleft of a neuromuscular junction, an enzyme called

acetycholinesterase is always present

the time in which cross bridges are active is called

the period of contraction

slow oxidative fibers

red fibers

smooth sustained contraction is called

tetanus

flexes the wrist

flexor carpi ulnaris

slow acting finger flexor

flexor digitorum profundus

powerful wrist extends and abducts the wrist & thumb

extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis

muscle that opposes and reverses the action of another muscle

antagonist

muscle that stabilizes the origin of another muscle

fixator

muscle that aids another by promoting the same movement

synergist

movements of the thigh are accomplished by muscles anchored to the

pelvic girdle

the insertion of the biceps brachii is

on the radius

a synergist of the gastronemius used in plantar flexion

the soleus

the pharyngeal constrictor muscles

propel food down the esophagus

the arrangement of a muscles fasicles determine

its range of motion and power

the largest, strongest tendon in the body

the calcaneal tendon (achilles tendon)

has two bellies, the frontal and occipital

epicranius or occipitofrontalis

the recording and interpretation of graphic records of the electrical activity of contracting muscles

electromyogrpahy

the broadest muscle of the back

latissimus dorsi

muscle spasms of the back would often include the

erector spinae

scissors demonstrate which type of lever

first class

muscle responsible for keeping your toes from dragging when walking

fibularis tertius

what is the major factor controlling the manner in which levers work

the difference in positioning of the effort, load and fulcrum

muscle fiber arrangement in a pennate muscle

the fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of a muscle

determines the power of a muscle

the total number of muscle cells available for contraction

a muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movement is called

an agonist

when the term biceps, triceps or quadriceps forms the part of a muscle's name

the muscle has 2,3, or 4 origins

there are over _______ muscles in the body

600

when the term levator is part of the descriptive term for a muscle's action this means that

the muscle elevates and or adducts a region

the suprahyoid muscles are a group of muscles that lie

superior to the hyoid bone and help form the floor of the oral cavity

the action of the surapinatus is to

stabilize the shoulder joint and help prevent downward location of the humerus and to assist in abduction

the extensor carpi radialis brevis

extends and abducts the wrist and is short

the muscles that are found at openings of the body are called

circular muscles

to produce horizontal wrinkles in the forehead the

frontal belly of the epicranius muscles are involved

tongue muscle used to stick out your tongue

geniglossus

group of muscles that rotates the neck

the scalenes

muscles involved in crossing one leg over the other

the sartorius

muscle that inserts by the calcaneal tendon

the gastrocnemius

a lever that operates at a mechanical disadvantage means that

the lad is far from the fulcrum and the effort is applied near the fulcrum

does not compress the abdomen

coccygeus

the muscle group that works with and assists the action of a prime mover is a

synergist

a muscle located on the dorsal side of the body is the

infraspinatus

not a member of the hamstrings

gracillis

sucking muscle

buccinator

spasms of this straplike muscle often result in wryneck

sternocleidomastoid

muscles are classified by

location, type of action they cause, shape

in flexing the forearm at the elbow the

triceps brachii acts as antagonist

orbicularis oris

closes, purses, and protrudes the lips

in a pennate muscle pattern

muscles look like a feather

the extensor digitorum longus has which type of fascicle arrangement

unipennate

pain in the arm (forearm) that swings a racquet is a strain of the

brachioradialis

to exhale foribly, one would contract the

internal intercostals of the diaphragm

paralysis of this muscle would make an individual unable to flex the thigh

iliopsoas and rectus femoris

can operate at a mechanical advantage or mechanical disadvantage depending on the location

first class levers

geniohyoid, hyglossus and stylohyoid all act on the

tongue

adductor magnus, adductor longus and adductor brevis are parts of a large muscle mass of the

medial compartment of the thigh

muscle involved in abduction

deltoid

muscle flexor of the thigh

adductor magnus

muscle involved in inversion at the ankle joint

tibialis anterior

serves as a common intramuscular injection sites

the vastus lateralis

paralysis of this muscle would make an individual unable to flex the knee

hamstring

powerful forearm extensor

triceps brachii

known as the boxer muscle

serratus anterior

runs deep into the external oblique

internal oblique

helps keep food between the grinding surfaces of the teeth during chewing

buccinator

draws corners of the mouth downward as in expressing horror

platysma

main chewing muscle

masseter

has a convergent arrangement of fascicles

pectoralis major

the abnormal protrusion of the small intestine through a week point in the muscle of the abdominal wall

hernia

run at right angles to the axis of the muscle

transverse fibers

quadriceps femoris is composed of three vastus muscles and the

rectus femoris

the synergist of the latissimus dorsi

teres major

extends the great toe

extensor hallucis longus

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