Pre-AP Biology FINAL

58 terms by lmadi95 

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water, food, space, disease

4 factors to determine human growth rate

birthrate- death rate

formula for human growth rate

threats of biodiversity

habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, edge effect, habitat degradation, acid rain, ozone hole, introducing exotic species

habitat fragmentation

separation of one wilderness area from another wilderness area

edge effect

brings habitats together and creates more biodiversity (forest with lake)

trophic level

organism that represents a feeding step in the movement of energy and materials through an ecosystem

parasitism

symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits at the expense of another

mutualism

symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit

commensalism

symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other is not effected

autotroph

organisms that use energy from the sun or energy stored in chemical compounds to manufacture own needs

heterotroph

organisms that cannot make their own food

density dependent

limiting factors that effect growth of population (ex: disease, parasites, food availability)

density independent

factors that affect all populations, regardless of their density (ex: temperature, storms, floods)

bionomial nomenclature

two word naming system to identify species

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

Order of taxon

Linnaeus

"Father of Taxonomy"

cladogram

A branching diagram that helps identify a group's derived traits

Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Fungi, Plants, Animals

6 Kingdoms

eubacteria

group of prokaryotes with strong cell walls and a variety of structures, may be autotrophs

archaebacteria

chemosynthetic prokaryotes that live in harsh environments, such as deep sea vents and hot springs

fungi

group of unicellular or multicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes that do not move from place to place

lytic cycle

viral replication cycle in which virus takes over a host cell's genetic material and uses the host cell's structures and energy to replicate until the host cell bursts, killing it

lysogenic cycle

viral replication cycle in which the virus's nucleic acid is integrated into the host cell's chromosome

retrovirus

type of viral replication where virus uses reverse transcript to make DNA from viral RNA; DNA is then integrated into the host cell's chromosome

prion

composed of proteins, no nucleic acid to carry genetic info (acts like a virus)

viroid

composed of a single strand of RNA with no protein coat (acts like a virus)

provirus

viral DNA that is integrated into a host cell's chromosome and replicated each time the host cell replicates

binary fission

asexual reproductive process in which one cell divides into two separate genetically identical cells

conjugation

form of sexual reproduction in some bacteria where one bacterium transfers all or part of its genetic material to another through a bridge like structure called a pilus

chemosynthesis

autotrophic process where organisms obtain energy from the breakdown of inorganic compounds containing sulfur and nitrogen

endospore

tiny structure that contains a bacterium's DNA and a small amount of its cytoplasm, encased by a tougher outer covering that resists drying out, temperature extremes, and harsh chemicals (resting state)

protozoan

animal- like protists

flagellates

protozoans with flagella

ciliates

protozoans with cilia

sporozoan

parasitic protozoans

fragmentation

type of asexual reproduction in algae where an individual breaks into pieces and each piece grows into a new individual

protist

diverse group of multicellular or unicellular eukaryotes that lack complex organ systems and live in moist environments

alteration of generations

haploid forms gametophyte, gametophyte fuse and form diploid zygote, sporophyte undergoes myosis and form haploid gametophyte

water, slimy, downy mildews

3 types of molds

slime mold

beautiful colors, cool, moist, shady habitats, grow on rotting leaves or decaying logs

water mold/ downy mildew

Live in water or moist places, Feed on dead organisms or are parasites, Look like fuzzy white growths on decaying matter

hyphae

threadlike structures of fungi

mycelium

network of structures of fungi

septa

divide hyphae into individual cells

saprophyte

organism that lives on dead organic material

sporangium

in fungi, a sac or case oh hyphae in which spores are produced

haustoria

in parasitic fungi, hyphae that grow into host cells and absorb nutrients and minerals from host

extracellular digestion

how fungi obtain food, digest food outside the cell

budding

Mitosis occurs and new individual pinches off from the parent, matures and separates from the parent

mutualist fungi

live with symbiotic relationship with another organism

parasitic fungi

absorb nutrients from living cells of their hosts

stolon

fungi hyphae that grow horizontally along a surface and rapidly reproduce a mycelium

rhizoids

fungal hyphae that penetrate food and anchor a mycelium

ascomycetes

sac fungi

deuteromycetes

have no sexual stage in lifetime (fungi)

mycorrhizae

increase surface are for plant to absorb nutrients, gets food in return

lichen

provides space for algae to grow, provides food for both by photosynthesis

bread mold

rhizopus stolonifer

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