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Review of Chapter 17 - China Develops a New Economy

Song Dynasty

Changes in tgagriculture were a mjor reason of the growth of Chica's economic growth. During this period China saw a higher increase in production of rice as well as new and better farming methods.

Reasons for Agriculture Changes

The movement of farmers to the fertile basin of the Chang Jiang river in southern China. The climate was warm and wet, ideal for cultivating rice plants, which needed a lot of water.

Population in Southern China in 1207

About 65 million people lived in this area.

Population in Northern China in 1207

About 50 million people lived in this area.

Tang Dynasty

Northern China was the wealthiest and most popular part of the country . . . wars and attacks by Mongolia frove many landowners to move south.

Harrow

a farm tool used to break up and even out plowed ground

Chain Pump

a pump with containers attached to a loop of chain to lift water and carry it where it is wanted.

Characteristics of the New Agriculture

Small farms covered all the suitable land. Terraced hillsides spread afar the land. Rice grew on the terraces in flooded fields call paddies. Elaborate irrigation systems crisscross the paddies, brmning water where its needed.

Harvest time of rice during the 11th century

a new type of rice resistent to drought matured in two months.

13th century Agriculture additions

Peasant farmers also grew tea, cotton, and sugar. They also grew mulberry trees to feed silkworms

Importance of tea

Tea was used mainly for medicine , by the ninth century tea was the national drink. Later it became a social custom and teahouses became popular. The demand grew larger.

Results of Agriculture Changes

Growing rice increased food production. The population grew to over 100 million people. Pesants took interest in other business opportunities to make silk, cotton cloth, and other products to sell or trade. Commerce increased to other businesses to buy luxury items.

Growth of Trade and Commerce

Tang emperors eased restrictions on merchants and actively promoted trade. Products like rice, silk, tea, jade and porcelain travelled to many asian countries. Under the Song, businesses grew even more.

Barge

a long boat with a flat bottom

Currency

the form of money used in a country. The introduction of currency in the 11th century coins made of copper with used at first and later paper money was made in large quantities.

Reasons for Growth in Trade and Commerce

Wealthy landowners were eager to buy luxuries, encouraging the demand for silk and other goods.
Commerce was helped by water transportation, across rivers and the Grand Canal. It was cheaper than road transportation.
The introduction of paper currency increase commerce.

Characteristics of Commercial Growth

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