What are the factors affecting the selection of the route of administration?
onset and duration of action
site of reaction
What are the 2 routes of administration?
What are the different types of local routes of administration? (14 types)
skin, nasal, conjuctival, urethra and bladder, vaginal, rectal, mammary, sublingual, GI tract, otic, epidural, intrspinal, intrasynovial (intra-articular), intramedullary (into bone marrow)
What are the different types of systemic routes of administration?
oral, parenteral or by injection, inhalation
What does systemic mean?
Route of administration that has to work through the body by the blood stream and is dispersed through the tissues throughout the body
What does parenteral mean?
any systemic route besides the oral route
What are the advantages to oral administration?
convenient in some animals
no problem of infection
What are the disadvantages of oral administration?
inactivation of some drugs by gastric acidity, digestive enzymes, or rumen microflora
the presence of food may effect absorption
the presence of drugs may effect absorption
activity of the GI tract affects absorption
irritant drugs may cause vomiting and diarrhea
onset of action is slow - not good for emergencies!
unpalatability of some drugs
What are the advantages for intravenous administration?
accurate - exact dosage
fast onset of action - good for emergencies!
irritating, hypertonic, acidic, or basic drugs can be given
large volumes can be given
What are the disadvantages for intravenous administration?
dangerous when administering it to livestock
What are the advantages for intramuscular administration?
duration of action is longer than intravenous - better for long term treatment
suspensions can be injected
less risk of contamination
What are the disadvantages for intramuscular administration?
irritant, hypertonic, acidic, or basic drugs may cause tissue damage
What are the advantages for subcutaneous administration?
slow absorption but constant
longer duration of action
What are the disadvantages for subcutaneous administration?
irritating drugs cannot be used