Accessory organs of the digestive tract

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accessory digestive organs

These are not part of the gastrointestinal tract but do play a key role in the digestive system

liver

This is a large organ located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen

hepatic

pertaining to the liver

glucose

the liver removes excess of this, it is commonly known as blood sugar

glycogen

This is a form of starch which the liver converts back into glucose when the blood sugar level is low

bilirubin

is the pigment produced from the destruction of hemoglobin and released by the liver in bile

bile

this is a digestive juice secreted by the liver and aids in he digestion of fat. It is stored in the gallbladder

biliary tree

this provides the channels through which bile is transported from the liver to the small intestine

biliary

pertaining to bile

common hepatic duct

this is the trunk which is just outside the liver

cystic duct

after the bile travels through the common hepatic duct it enters and exits through this

gallbladder

pear-shaped organ about the size of an egg located under the liver

cholecystic

this means pertaining to the gallbladder

pancreas

This is a soft 6 inch long oblong gland that is located behind the stomach.

digestion

the process by which complex foods are broken down into nutrients that the body can use

degestive enzymes

these are responsible for the chemical changes that break food down into simpler forms

primary nutrients

charbohydrates, fats proteins vitamins and minerals are these which are only required in small amounts

metabolism

this includes all of the processes involved in the body's use of nutrients

anabolism

this is the building up of body cells and substances from nutrients

catabolism

this is the breaking down of body cells or substances releasing energy and carbon dioxide

absorption

this is the process by which completely digested nutrients are transported to the cells throughout the body

villi

finger like projections on the mucosa that lines the small intestine

lacteals

these are specialized structures of the lymphatic system which absorb fats and fat soluble vitamins

mastication

also known as chewing, this breaks down food and mixes it with saliva

bolus

this is a mass of food that has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed

peristalsis

this is a series of wave like contractions that moves food downwards

chyme

this is the semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes out of the stomach through the pyloric sphincter and into the small intestine

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