Key Terms for The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History; Ch. 1: From the Origins of Agriculture to the 1st River-Valley Civilizations (8000 - 1500 B.C.E.)

27 terms by goveganplease 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

civilization

indicated by:
-cities that served as administrative centers
-political system based on control of defined territory rather than on kinship connections
-significant number of people engaged in specialized, non-food-producing activities
-status distinctions usually linked to the accumulation of substantial wealth by some groups
-monumental building
-system for keeping permanent records
-long-distance trade
-major advances in science/arts

culture

learned patterns of action/expression; i.e.: skills/ideas deliberately passed along w/in societies involving production of artworks & tools over wide areas & long periods of time; includes material objects (dwellings, clothing, tools, crafts) & nonmaterial (beliefs, languages)

history

development, transmission, & transformation of cultural practices and events

Stone Age

from about 2 million ya to about 4,000 ya; began w/ appearance of stone tool making (1st cultural activity); misleading title b/c not all tools made of stone (bone, skin, wood)

Paleolithic

Old Stone Age; subdivision of Stone Age; lasted until 10,000 ya (about 3,000 yrs after end of last Ice Age - when glaciers covered N. America, Europe, Asia)

Neolithic

New Stone Age; associated w/ origins of agriculture

foragers

hunting/food-gathering ppls; now in Kalahari Desert of southern Africa & Ituri Forest of Central Africa - eat vegetables daily & meat @ feasts (Stone Age probably did same but tools & equip for vegs left few traces)

Agricultural Revolution

more precise than "Neolithic Revolution" b/c emphasizes central role of food production & signals changeover occurred many times

Holocene

since about 9000 B.C.E.; named for global warming that ended last Ice Age

megaliths

"big stones," relate to religion

Babylon

most important city in southern Mesopotamia in 2nd & 1st millennia B.C.E.

Sumerians

in southern Mesopotamia at least by 5000 B.C.E.; dominated Mesopotamia in 3rd millennium B.C.E.

Semitic

family of languages spoken in parts of western Asia & northern Africa (Hebrew, Aramaic, Phoenician [ancient]; Arabic [today]); ppl maybe descendants of nomads from desert west of Mesopotamia, seemed to live in peace w/ Sumerians; language indicated by personal names recorded from northerly cities as early as 2900 B.C.E.

city-state

self-governing urban center & agricultural territories it controlled

scribe

administrator or scholar charged by temple or palace w/ reading & writing tasks; male domination complicated efforts to reconstruct lives of women - writings reflect elite male activities

ziggurat

multi-story, mud-brick, pyramid-shaped tower approached by ramps & stairs; unclear function/meaning

amulets

small charms meant to protect bearer from evil; survival suggests widespread belief in magic (use of special words & rituals to manipulate forces of nature)

cuneiform

combo of strokes & wedges that evolved from usual method of writing (pressing point of sharpened reed into moist clay tablet - reed made wedge-shaped impressions); Latin for "wedge-shaped"; several 100 signs compared to 25 or so in alphabetic system; mastery required yrs of practice; lack of simplification by scribes due to prestige & regular employment

pharaoh

New Kingdom term for Egyptian king, from Egyptian phrase meaning "palace"; from Old Kingdom on, considered god on earth, incarnation of Horus & son of sun-god Re (conception of divine king may explain absence in Egypt of impersonal code of law comparable to Hammurabi's Code in Mesopotamia)

ma'at

divinely authorized order of universe; maintained by pharaoh

pyramid

series of stone platforms laid one on top of the other at Saqqara, near Memphis; construction order by Djoser (3rd Dynasty king) around 2630 B.C.E.; 4th Dynasty rulers filled in steps of Djoser's tomb

Memphis

near modern Cairo at apex of Nile Delta; capital (in area of original power base) during Old Kingdom

Thebes

far to south, replaced Memphis during Middle & New Kingdom

papyrus

made from stems of papyrus reed that grew in Nile marshes; made by laying out stems in vertical & horizontal grid pattern, moistening, & pounding w/ soft mallet until adhered into sheet; "paper" comes from Greek & Roman words for papyrus

mummy

produced by removing organs for preservation & storage in stone jars laid out around corpse & filling body w/ packing materials, immersing corpse in dehydrating & preserving chemicals, wrapping in linen

Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro

urban sites that best typify Indus Valley civilization; high water table at sites makes excavation of earliest levels of settlement impossible

Harappa

3.5 mi (5.6 km) in circumference may have housed 35,000 & M.D. several times that; similarities: high, thick, encircling walls of brick; streets laid out in rectangular grid; covered drainpipes to carry away waste; consistent width of streets & length of city blocks & uniformity of mud construction bricks (suggests strong central authority located possibly in citadel [elevated, enclosed, containing buildings - well-ventilated structures nearby stored grain, barracks suggest large # of artisans in organized groups); 500 mi (805 km) north of M.D.; gateway for copper, tin, stones, & other resources coming from northwest

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set