## Gravity, Forces, and Motion

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LuckyEBF  on May 23, 2011

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Science Quiz: Wednesday, May 25

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# Gravity, Forces, and Motion

 gravityThe attractive force that objects exert on each because of their mass
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#### Definitions

gravity The attractive force that objects exert on each because of their mass
centripetal force The sun's gravity acts as a centripetal force (toward the center) on Earth, causing Earth to travel in a circular (elliptical, actually) orbit around the sun.
Newton's First Law of Motion Objects at rest remain at rest and objects in motion remain in motion (with the same velocity) unless acted on by an unbalanced force.
Newton's Second Law of Motion The acceleration of an object increases with increased force on that object and decreases with increased mass of the object. This relationship can be expressed mathematically by the equation F =ma where F represents force (measured in Newtons), m represents mass (measured in kilograms), and a represents acceleration (measured in meters/second/second).
inertia The resistance of objects to changes in motion. The more massive an object is, the more inertia it has
weight A measure of the force of gravity on an object. It can be calculated by using an equation related to F=ma, W=mg where W represents weight (measured in Newtons), m represents mass (measured in kilograms), and g represents acceleration due to gravity (= 9.8 meters/second/second).
gravitational potential energy (GPE)The amount of energy an object has based on its position above Earth's surface. The amount of energy required to lift an object or the amount of energy released when an object falls can be calculated by using the equation, GPE=mgh where GPE is measured in Joules, m is mass and measured in kilograms, g (acceleration due to gravity) = 9.8 m/s/s, and h represents the change in height and is measured in meters.
motion a change in position over time
velocity a speed in a specific direction
acceleration the rate at which velocity changes over time (the unit is usually meters/second/second)

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