Sociology Test 2

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Changes affecting funeral service

CHANGES AFFECTING FUNERAL SERVICE

Being aware of what has changed funeral service in the past can help us more accurately predict some changes we might face in the future.

INDUSTRIALIZATION

- the individual crafting of products is replaced by manufacturing of goods utilizing mass production techniques.
Families were forced to look for work outside family unit
Family dependent on outside resources to meet needs
Loss of craftsmanship and alienation of worker from basic skills
Factories produce same goods faster, cheaper and more volume

URBANIZATION

- the change from rural (country) to urban (city) in character

BUREAUCRATIZATION

- the creation of a system which governs thru departments and subdivisions, managed by sets of officials following and inflexible routine
Population increases in cities, laws are needed, regulations made

MORE CURRENT CHANGES
EXTENDED LIFE EXPECTANCY (LONGEVITY)

- because people are living longer, many people do not experience a loss until they are much older. This reduces families' exposure to death; many can make it into adolescence or adulthood without experiencing death

DEATH IN INSTITUTIONS

- placing older members of the family in extended care facilities or retirement homes has become more popular and or necessary. Removes death from home and makes it less visible

SOCIAL FACTORS WHICH EFFECT FUNERAL RITES

1. ECONOMIC - this may determine what options are available for a family
 Statistically poor people spend the most on funera

2. SOCIAL STRATIFICATION

- categorization of people by money. Prestige and power; a ranking of social status (position) in groups such as upper, middle, and lower class
 Funeral rite may represent a status symbol
 The lower social stratification of Americans tends to experience the highest frequency of death.
 TERMS RELATED TO SOCIAL STRATIFICATIOn

WEALTH

an individual's economic assets (income)

 PRESTIGE

- a person's reputation or influence arising from success. Achievement or other favorable attribute

 POWER

- the ability of an individual or group to implement whishes or policies with or without the cooperation of other

SOCIAL CLASS

- a social grouping in which member's posses roughly equivalent culturally valued attributes.

SOCIAL MOBILITY

- the ability to move from place to place readily, or to move from class to class, either up or down
 THE FOLLOWING EFFECT SOCIAL MOBILITY:
 Parental encouragement
 An effective education
 Ambition
 Hard work

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION

- area in which a family lives and will affect the type of funeral rite selected

NEO-LOCALISM

- tendency of off-spring to move away from the area in which they were born will have an effect on the funeral rite. When parents pass on the children might bring trends of the area in which they currently live

EDUCATION LEVEL

- there is a tendency that the higher the education level an individual has the less likely they are to have a traditional funeral. They are more likely to choose cremation instead of earth buria

RELIGION

- A culturally entrenched pattern of behavior made up of:
 Sacred beliefs
 Emotional feelings with that belief
 Overt conduct implementing the beliefs and feelings
 According to sociologist, religion serves several functions, including:
 Providing social cohesion
 Supporting and maintaining social control
 Promoting social change

GOVERNEMENT

- This has changed the funeral rite by placing more regulations on the funeral process. (i.e. - transportation permits, death certificated, etc

LIVING SITUATION

- for many Americans this has changed in recent years which cause change in the person carrying the right and duty of disposition. To the funeral director it is important for the person with right and duty of disposition to be identified and established. (i.e. - same sex partnerships, cohabitation and living single population

SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN FUNERALIZATION during the 20th Century

1. LOCATION OF FUNERAL RITE AND BODY PREPERATION
 Increasing presence and utilization of the funeral home
 Years past most funeralization happen at home

CHANGE IN DIRECT INVOLVEMENT OF FAMILY AND FRIENDS

 More reliance and responsibility on funeral director and staff
 Causes need for funeral director to have knowledge in the social sciences
 Funeral director must now increase their counseling abilities

COST OF THE FUNERAL IS NO LONGER FOCUSED ON PRICE OF CASKET

 Now casket represents a smaller portion of the total expense of a funeral
 Affected by FTC and FTC rules requiring itemized funeral bill
 Increase in charges for professional services rendered

INFLUENCE OF THE AUTOMOBILE

 Selection of the funeral home is no longer influenced as much by the proximity to the family home
 Families are able to travel future for better service
 Burial could occur at a greater distance from home instead of local or family cemeteries

INFLUENCE OF THE AIRPLANE

 Provide transportation of human remains over long distances in a short period of time
 Facilitates the neo-local family members during time of death

INFLUENCE OF DISPOSITION

Transition from "church yard" cemeteries to "memorial park" cemeteries
 Increases in:
 Cremation
 Body donation
 Entombment
 Immediate disposition

INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZED RELIGION

 Some churches are opening and operating funeral homes
 Some clergy are becoming more active in the arrangement conferences with families

INFLUENCE OF IMMIGRATION

 Cultural diversity represented by the presence of a growing variety of ethics and cultureal groups in the united state

MODERN AND FUTURE TRENDS

 Population and death projections
 Where death will occur
 Changes in the traditional family unit
 Religion and the clergy
 Increases in alternative forms of disposition
 Changes in merchandise and alternatives to traditional merchandise
 Regulatory changes in funeral licensing
 Better educated consumers Personal recruitment and retention of funeral service personnel Increase in the number of women in funeral service
 Improved funeral home operating efficiency
 Computerization and the internet
 Funeral home as a resource center
 Acquisition of companies
 Effects of continuing education on funeral service licenses

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