AP PSYCHOLOGY (All Sets Combined)

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This should be all of the terms, ideas, ideations.. etc etc. Based mainly on Myers Psychology 8th Edition.

obedience to authority

-Studies of obedience by Stanley Milgram. Milgram told participants they would be participating in a study of the effects of punishment on learning. Their task was to administer electric shock to a "learner," but in reality, the "learner" was a confederate. Found that 65% of participants could be coaxed to deliver every level of shock
-Milgram may have found high obedience because his participants were volunteers
-Raised ethical issues. To ensure that there are no long-lasting effects, participants were debriefed

Sexology

The scientific study of sex, especially of sexual dysfunctions.

Philip Zimbardo

Conducted the famous Stanford Prison experiment. It was conducted to study the power of social roles to influence people's behavior. It proved people's behavior depends to a large extent on the roles that are asked to play

mere exposure

the phenomenon by which the greater the exposure we have to a given stimulus, the more we like it

suicidal ideation

Thoughts of hurting or killing oneself. Has thoughts of hurting or killing self, but may or may not be planning to act on these thoughts. (Aaron Beck)

double slit experiment

Demonstrates the inseperability of the wave and particle natures of light. It proved how waves diffract around an object, and through destructive and constructive interference create black and white patterns of light. Black being the destructive interference and the more bright the whites are the more constructive interference there was. (Thomas Young)

inferiority complex

Adler's conception of a basic feeling of inadequacy stemming from childhood experiences, a sense of personal inferiority arising from CONFLICT between the desire to be noticed and the fear of being humiliated

Alfred Adler

Neo-Freudian who thought social tensions were more important than sexual tensions in the development of personality, Developed the inferiority inferiority/ superiority complexes. He would have said that people developed their personalitys because they didn't want to be inferior. Actually excluded from the Vienna School of thought by Freud for this.

Mary Ainsworth

A developmental psychologist who compared effects of maternal separation, and devised patterns of attachment; Used "The Strange Situation"-observation of parent/child attachment and vivided the attachments into 3 broad categories (Secure 66%, Avoidant 22%, and Anxious/Ambivalent/Resistant 11%)

The strange situation

An observational measure of infant attachment that requires the infant to move through a series of introducions, separations, and reunions with the caregiver and an adult stranger in a prescribed order used by Mary Ainsworth. Also called the STRANGER PARADIGM.

Avoidant attachments

A form of attachment that is the 2nd most common (22%) according to Mary Ainsworth, where infants may resist being held by the parents and will explore the novel environment. They do not go to the parents for comfort when they return after an absence

Secure attachments

A from of attachment that is the most common(66%) according to Mary Ainsworth, where a child displays confidence when the parent is present, shows mild distress when the parent leaves, and quickly reestablishes contact when the parent returns good balance between exploration and attachment

Resistant attachments

A form of attachment pattern that is the LEAST prevalent(11%) according to Mary Ainsworth characterizing infants who remain close to the parent and fail to explore before separation, are usually distressed when the parent leaves, and combine clinginess with angry, resistive behavior when the parent returns.

Noam Chomsky

United States linguist whose theory of generative grammar redefined the field of linguistics , language development; he also disagreed with Skinner about language acquisition, stated there is an infinite # of sentences in a language, and humans have an INBORN native ability to develop language, children can deduce the structure of their native languages from "mere exposure". Supporting evidence from the mistakes children do, and do not make, in lang acq process, also there is a critical-period hypothesis for language acquisition.

Solomon Asch

A social psychologist that studied conformity; showed that social pressure can make a person say something that is obviously incorrect ; in a famous study(line length study) in which participants were shown cards with lines of different lengths and were asked to say which line matched the line on the first card in length, even when people knew that it was wrong they were more likely to pick it if another person said it was right. Also did the Impression Formation Study

Impression Formation Study

An experiment by the social psychologist Solomon Asch where he determined that describing a professor as "warm" or "cold" significantly affected people's perceptions.

Impression Formation

The process by which a person uses behavior and appearance of others to form attitudes about them.

Albert Bandura

A behavioral psychologist who is famous for work in observational or social learning. Stated that people profit from the mistakes/successes of others., He also believed that personlaity is not just acquired through direct reinforcement but also is a result of observational learning. Conducted the famed Bobo doll Experiment

Bobo doll Experiment

An experiment that was conducted by Albert Bandura in the 1940s, 1st group of kids were placed in room with bobo doll and hammer, nothing happened; second group show movie where adult hits bag with hammer and the kids followed suit when placed with bag and hammer; people's behavior can become more violent as a result of violent media.

Philip Bard

A very prominent American psychologist who developed an alternative arousal theory with Cannon bard, known as the Cannon-Bard theory . Was also the chairman of the APA during WW2.

Cannon-Bard theory

The theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion, especially in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain

Aaron Beck

A psychologist associated with cognitive therapeutic techniques. Believe problems arise from a persons maladaptive ways of thinking about the world. Created the Beck Scales-depression inventory, hopelessness scale, suicidal ideation, anxiety inventory, and youth inventories

Cognitive Therapy

Therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.

Alfred Binet

The indvidual that published the first measure of intelligence(based on "mental age") in 1905. The purpose of his intelligence test was to correctly place students on academic tracks in the French([specifically Parisan) school system.

Hermann Ebbinghaus

German psychologist who conducted the first extensive experiments on memory, used nonsense syllables and recorded how many times he had to study a list to remember it well, from this he was able to develop his "forgetting curve"

conformity

adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.

Ebbinghaus's Forgetting Curve

Shows that we lose 2/3 of information in first hour of learning; rate of forgetting levels off after a few days. , Meaningless material decays rapidly, then reaches a plateau, after which little is forgotten. (Ebbinghaus), hegave himself lots of material to study went over 14,000 practice repetitions to memorize 420 nonsense syllables and tested his memory at different time intervals to create this which plots forgetting as a function of time.

Albert Ellis

An early psychoanalyst and a pioneer in Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET), focuses on altering client's patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive behavior and emotions

Rational Emotive Therapy

A Cognitive Therapy based on Albert Ellis' theory that cognitions control our emotions and behaviors; therefore, changing the way we think about things will affect the way we feel and the way we behave., The therapist ACTIVELY challenges the patient's irrational beliefs.

Systematic desensitization

A type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias. (Joseph Wolpe)

ABC model

Demonstrates how negative, irrational beliefs can create stress and lead to unwanted consequences
A - Activating Event
B - Belief
C - Consequences
Used in the field of Cognitive Therapy by (Ellis , Beck)

Joseph Wolpe

Used classical conditioning theory in psychotherapy and introduced Systematic Desensitatization and concepts of reciprocal inhibition which he applied to reduce anxiety. In treatment he paired relaxation with an anxiety -provoking stimulus until the stimulus no longer produced anxiety.

reciprocal inhibition

The presence of one emotional state can inhibit the occurrence of another, such as joy prevent fear or anxiety inhibiting pleasure. (Wolpe - mainly)

Classical Conditioning

a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.

Anna Freud

Freud's daughter, his favorite daughter, she became a psychoanalysis following the footsteps of her father, Focused on the ego's ability to adapt and function; more focus on normal behavior than on pathological behavior, described ten different defense mechanisms by the ego to defend against anxiety and also, felt that you couldn't analyze children until they were mature enough to form a transference, disagreed with her father about woman (Neo-Freudian)

transference

In psychoanalysis, the process whereby emotions are passed on or displaced from one person to another

Erik Erikson

Neo- Freudian who proposed that as humans develop, they have psycho-social tasks that, if completed, lead to healthy development. , People evolve through 8 STAGES of personality development over the life span. Each stage marked by psychological crisis that involves confronting "who am I". Also described "basic trust" and also worked with Anna Freud( Freud's daughter)

Basic Trust

According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

John Garcia

His experiments in injecting animals with drugs that made them nauseous after feeding them a certain food helped to establish the idea that organisms learn best behaviors that affect survival., Researched taste aversion. Showed that when rats ate a novel substance before being nauseated by a drug or radiation, they developed a conditioned taste aversion for the substance. Also showed that taste preferences were established by biological predispositions.

Taste Aversion

A type of classical conditioning in which a previously desirable or neutral food comes to be perceived as repugnant because it is associated with negative stimulation (John Garcia).

Howard Gardner

Laid out the theory of multiple intelligences (MI) in his book Frames of Mind. Claimed that pencil and paper IQ tests do not capture the full range of human intelligences, and that we all have individual profiles of strengths and weaknesses across multiple intelligence dimensions. He identified at least eight types of intelligences: linguistic, logical/mathematical, bodily/kinesthetic, musical, spatial (visual), interpersonal (the ability to understand others), intrapersonal (the ability to understand oneself), and naturalist (the ability to recognize fine distinctions and patterns in the natural world)

Frames of Mind

types of intelligence according to Gardner

Theory of multiple intelligences

Gardner's theory, which proposes at least 8 independent intelligences on the basis of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide range of culturally valued activities

Garcia Effect

Named after researcher John Garcia, it is basically food aversion that occurs when people attribute illness to a particular food.

Harry Harlow

Psychologist who researched the relationship of body contact and nourishment to attachment, using Rhesus monkeys and artificial mothers. Wire Mother vs. Cloth mother)> Babies would get food from Wire mother, but would cling to and imprint on cloth mother. Showed that they needed contact as well as nurishment. Also proving that monkey preferred the soft cloth mother and due to isolation they never learned how to mate.

Hermann von Helmholtz

German physiologist who demonstrated that the movement of impulses in the nerves and in the brain was not instantaneous, but instead took a small but finite amount of time. Against Vitalism, believed in the conservation of energy in animals and also modified the Tichromatic theory. Estimated the speed of nerve conduction at (apprx 90 ft/sec) , Also proposed that specific sound frequencies vibrate specific portions of the basilar membrane producing distinct pitches

Vitalism

Belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical & chemical laws; eventually crumbled after lab synthesis of complex organic molecules

Basilar membrane

A structure that runs the length of the cochlea in the inner ear(supporting the organs of Corti) and holds the auditory receptors, called hair cells. The fibers of this are short and stiff near the oval window and long and fleaxible near the apex of the cochlea. This difference in structure allows the basilar membrane to help transduce pitch and initiating a chain of events that results in a nerve impulse traveling to the brain

Harry Helson

Theorist who endorses the life events model rather than the normative-crisis model for middle adulthood because timing of particular events in adults life, NOT the age, determine the course of personality development

Life events model

the approach to personality development that is based on the timing of particular events in an adult's life rather than on age per se (Helson). Is the opposite of Normative Crisis Model.

Normative crisis model

The traditional approach to adult personality development is which views personality development in terms of fairly universal stages, tied to a sequence of age-related crises.

Ernest Hilgard

Researched hypnosis and its effectiveness as an analgesic (reduction of pain) effect; studies showing that a hypnotic trance includes a "hidden observer," (arm in ice water test) suggesting that there is some subconscious control during hypnosis.Also called the dissociation theory of split consciousness-hynotized part of brain and an independent observer which works independently., Also created the Stanford hypnotic susceptibility scale.

hidden observer

Hilgard's term describing a hypnotized subject's awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis.

dissociation theory

According to this theory, hypnotized subjects dissociate, or split, various aspects of their behavior and perceptions from the "self" that normally controls these functions. Developed by (Ernest Hilgard)

Hypnosis

a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) SUGGESTS to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.

analgesia

The absence of pain sensations in the presence of a normally painful stimulus

Karen Horney

A neo-Freudian( and feminist) who criticized Freud, stated that personality is molded by current fears and impulses, rather than being determined solely by childhood experiences and instincts, neurotic trends; concept of "basic anxiety". Also said that psychoanalysis was biased against woman, and that men acted superior because they had "Womb Envy"

basic anxiety

Horney's theory of the deep-seated form of anxiety in children that is associated with feelings of being isolated and helpless in a world perceived as potentially threatening and hostile.

Penis Envy

In Psychoanalytic Thought, the desire of girls to posses a penis and therefore have the power that being male represents.

Womb Envy

The envy of pregnancy, childbirth, and motherhood, which results in the unconscious depreciation of women. Mens impulse toward creative work may be an over-compensation for their small role in procreation.

Electra complex

conflict during phallic stage in which girls supposedly love their fathers romantically and want to eliminate their mothers as rivals, counterpart to the Oedipus complex for females

Oedipus complex

According to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father, counterpart to the Electra Complex for males.

William James

Developed pragmatism(Functionalism). One of the founders of modern psychology, and the first to attempt to apply psychology as a science rather than a philosophy. Wrote first psychology textbook "The Principles of Psychology" and was interested in the the Meaning of Truth, (influenced by Darwin!)

Functionalism

William James school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes FUNCTION - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish. (influenced by Darwin!)

Edward Titchner

He introduced structuralism, and was a student of Wilhelm Wudnt; He also encouraged introspection. Broke onsciousness down into three elements: physical sensations, feeling, and images

Structuralism

An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind. (Edward Titchner)

Wilhelm Wudnt

Study the structure of the mind through introspection, developed the FIRST psychological lab inn Leipzig. Teacher of Edward Titchner.

Alfred Kinsey

College professor at Indiana University, Bloomington, author of "Sexual Behavior in the Human Male" and "Sexual Behavior in the Human Female;" collectively known as the Kinsey Report; report was controversial and inflammatory but well-received and immensely popular. Factored in the spurring of research for birth control., 1) Publishes a study based on male sexuality 2) Took a sample of 10,000 men, data said that sexual orientation was diverse and many were bi

Kinsey Report

"Sexual Behavior in the Human Male & Female": scientific study by Alfred Kinsey, turned traditional presumptions about sex and marriage on its head. high counts of homosexuality, masturbation, extramarital affairs, sexuality more fit to a continuum, homosexual tendencies are higher than expected, homosexual thoughts higher than expected. However, began interviewing people about their sexual behaviors in 1938. 17500 individuals, most of them were from University of Indiana and the surrounding community (White well educated individuals) FAILED to obtain a Representative sample.

Kinsey Scale

Kinsey 's rated sexuality on a 7-point scale ranging from exclusively heterosexual behavior (0) to exclusively homosexual behavior (6) (7 being asexual) Problem is he only looked at sexual behavior, not fantasies.

Ancel Keys

Developed the Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene at the University of Minnesota, , Led the hunger experiment where men were semistarved. The participants became food-obsessed, supports Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

Wolfgang Kohler

A Gestalt psychologist who became known for his experiments with chimpanzees and insight in problem solving. He believed that by perceiving the WHOLE situation, chimps were able to create novel solutions to problems (rather than just by trial and error). Through insight, chimps were able to use props in order to retrieve rewards., started Gestalt psychology with 2 companions Kurt Koffka, Max Wertheimer

Kurt Koffka

Worked with Wertheimer on his early perception experiments. Wrote Perception: An Introduction To Gestalt Theory which got recognition by the US.

Carl Lange

Danish physiologist who proposed a theory of emotion similar to, and about the same time as James' theory that awareness of physiological responses leads to experiences of emotion.

Simon LeVay

Wrote Sexual Brain and Queer Science, completed research on the DNA and finding a gay gene, he found the gene INAH3 was more than twice as large in heterosexual men as in homosexual men. Also found that certain brain regions (specifically, a cluster of cells on the hypothalamus) is different in homosexual(smaller) versus heterosexual men

Elizabeth Loftus

This psychologist discovered the misinformation effect: After exposure to subtle misinformation, many people misremember; as memory fades with time following an event, the injection of misinformation becomes easier, research on memory construction and the misinformation effect created doubts about the accuracy of eye-witness testimony, Along with John Palmer, showed people a filmed automobile accident, asked how fast cars were going when they smashed or bumped or contacted, asked if they had seen broken glass in the film (there was none) to study the tendency of people to construct memories based on how they are questioned.

misinformation effect

Occurs when participants' recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading post event information

memory construction

The surprising ease with which people form false memories best illustrates that the processes of encoding and retrieval involve:

Abraham Maslow

A humanistic psychologist who proposed the hierarchy of needs, also developed the view that the human needs for security, love, belonging, self-esteem and self-actualization were more important than physiological needs for food, sleep and sex. He developed a theory of a hierarchy of human needs, of which the highest were the need for "self-actualization"

hierarchy of needs

Maslow's Theory of Motivation which states that we must achieve lower level needs, such as food, shelter, and safety before we can achieve higher level needs, such as belonging, esteem, and self-actualization.

self-actualization

According to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential

Masters and Johnson

These two authors wrote a book called "Human Sexual Response" which proved that sex isn't just pleasurable for men., among the first to use laboratory experimentation and observation to study the sexual response cycle (1950s-60s); 4 levels include excitement, plateau, orgasm , and resolution

Stanley Milgram

Social psychologist that conducted studies in an effort to understand some of the vast horrors of World War II., obedience to authority; had participants administer what they believed were dangerous electrical shocks to other participants; wanted to see if Germans were an aberration or if all people were capable of committing evil actions., Did studies with humans where someone has charge over a button and is instructed to press it to punish the other volunteer for a wrong answer. In most cases, the person pressed the button well after the other subject could have died because a person will follow instructions to a fault from authority figures.

excitement phase

1st phase of the sexual response cycle; characterized by the genital areas becoming engorged with blood, causing the man's penis to become partially erect and the woman's clitoris to swell and the inner lips covering her vagina to open up. (Masters and Johnson)

plateau phase

the Second phase of the sexual response cycle, during which physical arousal continues to increase as the partners bodies prepare for orgasm. (Masters and Johnson)

orgasm phase

a series of rhythmic contractions of the muscles of the vaginal walls or the penis, also the Third and shortest phase of sexual response. (Masters and Johnson)

resolution phase

in sexual intercourse, the stage of relaxation that follows orgasm. (Masters and Johnson)

Sexual Response

Series of psychological and physiological changes that occur in the body during sexual behavior., its four stages are excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution. (Masters and Johnson)

lost-letter

Experiment conducted by Stanley Milgram to test how helpful people are to strangers not present, and their attitudes towards various groups

confederate

Someone who appears to be a research participant but actually is part of the research team.

debriefing

giving participants in a research study a complete explanation of the study after the study is completed

Carl Jung

Student of Freud. Broke over Freud's emphasis of sexuality. Believed all people had a collective unconscious of the past generations, but the connection faded due to modernization., "the collective unconscious" and mythic "archetypes"
Frued's follower. He also believed that Libido was all types of energy not just sexual. identified archetypes by studying dreams, visions, paintings, poetry, folk stories, myths, religions. Is also the Father of analytical psychologist.

collective unconscious

Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history.

personal unconscious

According to Jung, the level of awareness that houses material that is not within one's conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten.

Ivan Pavlov

a Russian researcher in the early 1900s who was the first research into learned behavior (conditioning) who discovered classical conditioning, by training dogs to salivate at the ringing of a bell, simplest form of classical conditioning is reminiscent of what Aristotle would have called the law of contiguity

law of contiguity

A law of association holding that events that occur in close proximity to each other in time or space are readily associated with each other. ( Aristotle) similar to classical conditioning.

Jean Piaget

Swiss psychologist remembered for his studies of cognitive development in children., Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete operational, and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation.

assimilation

in the theories of Jean Piaget: the application of a general schema to a particular instance

accomodation

According to Jean Piaget, mental processes that restructures existing schemas so that the new info is better understood ex:a child's schema of a bird includes any flying object, until they learn that a butterfly or a plane is not a bird

Philippe Pinel

He insisted that madness was not due to demonic possession, but an ailment of the mind, and who contributed to the more humane treatment of psychiatric patients in the late 1700s

Carl Rogers

Humanistic psychologist who stressed the inportance of acceptance, genuineness, and empathy in fostering human growth. , Developed "client-centered" therapy, self theory, and also unconditional positive regard

client-centered therapy

A humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth.

self theory

The theory according to Carl Rogers that when we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them much as would someone observing us, by looking at our behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs

unconditional positive regard

According to Carl Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.

Stanley Schachter

Developed the 2 factor emotion theory-physiological happens first, cognitive appraisal must be made in order to experience emotion. Had .Experiments on the Spillover Effect.

spillover effect

occasions when our emotional response to one event carries over into our response to another event. (Stanley Schachter)

Two-factor theory of emotion

Schachter and Singer's theory that emotion is the interaction of physiological arousal and the cognitive label that we apply to explain the arousal, The idea that emotional experience is the result of a two-step self perception process in which people first experience physiological arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it.

cognitive appraisal

the idea that to feel stress you need to perceive a threat and come to the conclusion that you may not have adequate resources to deal with the threat.

Theodore Simon

Working with Binet, he published a test of general mental ability that was loaded with items that required abstract reasoning skills rather than sensory skills. Helped figure out mental Age

John Locke

Believed people were born like blank slates and the environment shapes development, (tabula rasa). Wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding, and Second Treatise of Government.

mental age

A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.

B.F Skinner

A behaviorist and pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that everything we do is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments. he is famous for use of his operant conditioning aparatus which he used to study schedules of reinforcement on pidgeons and rats.

Charles Spearman

An english psychologist, known for his work in statistics, as a pioneer of factor analysis and for Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. He also did seminal work on models for human intelligence, including his theory that disparate cognitive test scores reflect a single general factor and coining the term g factor. Predicted that doing good on one part of a test should mean that you do good on another part.

tabula rasa

John Locke's concept of the mind as a blank sheet ultimately bombarded by sense impressions that, aided by human reasoning, formulate ideas. (Empty Slate)

factor analysis

a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score

G factor

SPEARMAN'S term for a general intellectual ability that underlies all mental operations to some degree

General Intelligence

a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test

Robert Sternberg

A professor at Yale and the author of Successful Intelligence, the concept of successful intelligence contrasts with the more narrow academic intelligence measured by IQ tests and other standardized examinations". evised the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (academic problem-solving, practical, and creative)

Triarchic Theory

Theory proposed by Robert Sternberg that states that intelligence consists of three parts including Analytic = the ability to solve problems, Creative = the ability to deal with new situations, and Practical = the ability to adjust and cope with one's environment

Lewis Terman

Revised Binet's IQ test and established norms for American children; tested group of young geniuses and followed in a longitudinal study that lasted beyond his own lifetime to show that high IQ does not necessarily lead to wonderful things in life. he test then became the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test. He is also known for his longitudinal research on gifted kids.

longitudinal research

Collect data from the same group of individuals as they age, useful in life span studies, HOWEVER downsides are that participants may withdraw, die, move away, influenced by changing historical context

Edward Thorndike

Pioneer in operant conditioning who discovered concepts in intstrumental learning such as the law of effect. Known for his work with cats in puzzle boxes.

law of effect

Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

instrumental learning

Associative learning in which a behavior becomes more or less probable depending on its consequences

John Watson

Founder of behaviorism, the view that psychology should restrict its efforts to studying observable behaviors, not mental processes, amous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat

Little Albert study

Study by John Watson and Reyner (1920), in which a little boy(11 months( became afraid of white fuzzy objects, especially white rats because he associated them with a loud clang after seeing a bunny and hearing a loud clang at the same time.

Hypnosis

a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur. Freud used this to enter the unconscious of his patients

Benjamin Whorf

A linguist who noticed that the more words that you have for a certain type of thing, the more subtle the distinctions you recognize in it. Also , language we use might control, and in some ways limit our thinking. For example since the Hopi didn't have a grammatical structure that as useful for the past, they rarely talked or worried about it.

Linguistic relativity hypothesis

The notion that the language a person speaks largely determines the nature of that person's thoughts (Benjamin Whorf)

Thomas Young

Published "A Theory of Color Vision" in England (his theory was later called the trichromatic theory), , Double Slit Interference Experiment: Light is made of waves

Stanford Prison experiment

Philip Zimbardo's study of the effect of roles on behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to play either prisoners or guards in a mock prison. The study was ended early because of the "guards'" role-induced cruelty. Proved that situational forces can lead ordinary people to exhibit horrendous behavior.

role

the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group

Groupthink

The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives (Think Kennedy's Advisors)

forensic psychology

field that blends psychology, law, and criminal justice. These psychologists make legal evaluations of a person's mental competency to stand trial, the state of mind of a defendant at the time of a crime, the fitness of a parent to have custody of children, or allegations of child abuse. (Yeah I just had to use this picture, its hilarious)

Phrenologist

A scientist who studied the shape of the skull and bumps on the head to determine whether these physical attributes are linked to criminal behavior; believed that external cranial characteristics dictate which areas of the brain control physical activity.

field experiments

Applies the scientific method to experimentally examine an occurence in the real world (or in naturally-occurring environments) rather than in the laboratory.

Basic research

One of the two main types of research, pure research that aims to confirm an existing theory or to learn more about a concept or phenomenon

Scientific method

A general approach to gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized

Applied research

One of the two main types of research, conducted specifically to solve practical problems and improve the quality of life.

validity

the extent to which the data collected address the research hypothesis in the way intended

reliability

Yielding consistent results; Does not insure validity

replicated

research is reliable when it can be ___________

hypothesis

possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question

practice effect

is an improvement in performance as a result of repeated practice with a task, repeated testing causes people to remember some of the test items; side effect of longitudinal studies

longitudinal studies

research method in which data is collected about a group of participants over a number of years to assess how certain characteristics change or remain the same during development, , follow the same children over different ages, Benefits: can track long-term effects, controls for differences over different people, Problems: time, money, drop-outs

Cohort

A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.

Descriptive research

is any type of research that describes the "who, what, when, where" of a situation, not what caused it

case study

A research method used to get a full, detailed picture of one subject or a small group of subjects, is also an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.

generalizable

Characteristic of a sample that refers to the degree to which findings based on the sample can be used to make accurate statements about the population of interest.