without or absence of
bad, abnormal, painful, difficult
upon, over, above, top
excessive, abnormally high, above
alongside or abnormal
excessive, over or many
purse or sac, bursa
knuckle of a joint
hip or groin, flank, ilium of the pelvis
ischium (hip bone)
flesh or meat
reaction to a stimulus or movement
tend/o, ten/o, tendon/o
singular form, plural form
hernia. swelling, or protrusion
-clasia, -clasis, -clast
surgical fixation, FUSION, or immobilization
surgical excision, removal
condition of blood
a record or image
one who specializes
loosen or dissolve
condition of increase
formation or growth, shape
instrument, used for viewing
process of viewing
A disease that causes dwarfism. A dwarf is an individual with abnormally short limbs and stature.
Disease that means "condition of crooked." The persons joints are abnormally stiff and movement is difficult.
Joint pain. Often the first symptom of joint or bone disease. Also a common complaint following an injury to the joint.
Joint inflammation. A general disorder resulting in inflammation and degeneration of a joint.
Excess fluids are aspirated, or withdrawn by suction, through a surgical puncture into the synovial cavity of the joint.
When the articular cartilage within synovial joints undergoes inflammatioin, resulting in joint pain during movement.
The breaking of an abnormally stiff joint during surgery to increase the range of motion, or ROM
The surgical fixation of a joint.
An X-ray of a joint after injecting a contrast media, air or both to highlight the synovial joint.
When a joint is loosened of abnormal restrictions, such as calcium deposits and bursliths.
A procedure to repair a joint. A complete arthroplasty refers to a joint replacement.
A surgical incision into the synovial cavity of a joint.
The inability to coordinate muscles during a voluntary activity. A sign of a nervous system disorder that is often inherited.
When a bone is casted to treat fractures a lack of movement in the limb leads to a reduction in muscle strength. Atrophy is a sign of reduced muscle size.
A condition of slow movement.
An abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe, caused by inflammation of a bursa near the big toe.
Surgery involving the removal of a bursa from a joint.
The inflammation of a bursa, which is a "purse or sac," and refers to a saclike bursa that cushions certain joints.
A calcium deposit within a bursa of the foot. Diagnosis is confirmed with an X-ray, and is typically surgically removed.
carpal tunnel syndrome
Characterized by inflammation of the wrists that puts pressure on the median nerve resulting in local pain and restricted movement.
Known as "wrist drop," its a weakness of the wrist resulting in difficulty supporting the hand.
A field of therapy that is centered on manipulation of bones and joints.
A surgical removal, or excision, of the cartilage associated with a joint.
A surgical repair of cartilage associated with a joint.
A break in the distal part of the radius
A break resulting in fragmentation of the bone.
A crushed break, often due to weight or pressure applied to a bone during a fall.
A surgery involving the removal of a rib.
Prolonged, involuntary muscular contractions. Often in the stomach wall or thigh muscle after exercise.
When one or more bones of the cranium undergo repair during surgery.
Surgery of the brain
The abnormal reduction of calcium in bone. Often caused by hormonal disorder upsetting the calcium balance between the bloodstream and the bone.
degenerative joint disease
General term for the disease of joints in which the cartilage undergoes degeneration. It's progressive becoming worse over time. During the process, the articular cartilage degrades and is often replaced with bone.
Surgical procedure that is used to reduce the pain of a herniated disk by surgically removing the intervertebral disk.
A break causing an abnormal alignment of bone pieces.
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
Children occasionally born with a disease causing skeletal muscle degeneration, Abbreviated DMD, this disease has no cure.
bad, abnormal, painful or difficult in movement. A common sign of musculoskeletal disorder.
General term to describe a deformity arising during development. It is a sign of a congenital disease that occurs in different forms.
The measuring of the strength of a muscle contraction.
Small bony elevations on the humerus near the elbow joint. This are of the elbow becomes inflammed usually due to an injury.
A break at the location of the growth plate, which can affect growth of the bone.
A surgical incision into the connective tissue sheath surrounding a muscle.
A disease of unknown origin that produces widespread pain of musculoskeletal structures of the limb, face, and trunk. There is some evidence that it maybe, at least in part, caused by sleep deprivation.
A clinical term for a break in a bone.
Sharp pain in the joints of the toes. Often caused by an abnormal accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joints, a waste product of protein metabolism.
A slight break in a bone that appears as a slight fissure in an X-ray.
The rupture of an intervertebral disk which places pressure against spinal nerves, creating back pain. A result of sudden movement or an attempt to lift a heavy object.
The sign of excessive muscle growth or development. It is produced by the addition of protein to muscle fibers, which is stimulated by strenuous muscle activity.
Occurs when the upper thoracic curve bends posteriorly, causing an abnormal hump at the upper back, often accompanies osteoporosis.
Performed to treat herniated disk during which the part of a vertebrae known as the lamina is surgically removed to relieve pressure on the spinal cord.
Malignant bone cancer that arises from the cells of the red bone marrow. Named after "condition of white blood" because of the high levels of deformed white blood cells.
An exaggerated anterior spinal curve with a congenital origin, usually in the thoracic or lumbar regions.
Congenital disease that results in excessive cartilage formation at the epiphyseal plates (growth plates), forming abnormally long limbs and a tall, thin body.
A crescent-shaped band of cartilage that supports certain joints, such as the knee and shoulder.
The condition of muscle pain due to the buildup of lactic acids in the muscle tissue. This is temporary and only lasts about a day.
Characterized by a progressive failure of muscles to respond to nerve stimulation. Meaning serious muscle weakness.
A malignant tumor arising from the tissue site of the red bone marrow.
An injury to muscle that may cause the muscle to tear through the fascia (tough layer of connective tissue surrounding a muscle), and causing a protrusion.
The surgical repair of a muscle.
The repair of a muscle when surgery is required to suture the torn ends together.
A common result of muscle injury is a local inflammation.
A break in which the broken bones retain their alignment.
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
The most common pharmacological treatment for any condition, including inflammation or pain of muscle or bone tissue. Aspirin and Ibuprofen are examples.
The field of medical support involving the construction of fitting of orthopedic appliances to assist a patient, such as lifts, artificial limbs, and retraction devices.
The surgical removal, or excision, of bone tissue.
inflammation of bone tissue after an injury or exposed to infection.
A common condition in which the joint structures become worn overtime and are gradually replaced by bone
Bone cancer arising from epithelial tissue that has invaded a bone.
A necessary break of a bone to correct a defect or an improperly healed fracture.
An inherited disease resulting in impaired bone growth and fragile bones.
A disease resulting in the softening of bones.
Inflammation of the red bone marrow. Usual cause is bacterial infection.
A medical field that emphasizes the relationship between muskuloskeletal system and overall health with an emphasis on body alignment and nutrition.
The surgical repair of a bone
The abnormal loss of bone density resulting in a loss of posture and flexibility. Known as the condition of "holes in bones"
Bone cancer arising from connective tissue, or fleshy meaty part of the bone. This is a more aggressive form of bone cancer.
Results in bone deformities due to the acceleration of bone loss. Severe bone pain and frequent fractures are symptoms.
Paralysis in which a loss of sensation or voluntary movement of the area of the body below the hips, including both legs.
A specialty that focuses on foot health.
A health care professional trained in the field of podiatry.
Inflammation of many muscles. Caused by bacterial infection in which a group of muscles become infected and react with inflammation.
A break at the ankle that affects both bones of the leg.
The medical term for an artificial limb.
All four limbs are without sensation of voluntary movement.
Treatment of fractures by aligning the broken bones to their normal position.
An autoimmune disease in which joint structures become eroded by the action of the body's own white blood cells.
Bones become softened due to the excessive removal of calcium for other body functions. Caused by lack off calcium or vitamin D in the diet.
rotator cuff injury
Trauma to the shoulder that can tear one or more tendons or muscles belonging to the rotator cuff group. The rotator cuff is a combination of four muscles and their tendons that surround and stabilize the shoulder joint. 1) teres minor 2)supraspinatur 3)infraspinatus 4)subspinatus.
A lateral curvature of the spine with a congenital origin, usually in the thoracic or lumbar regions.
spinal cord injury
Trauma to the vertebral column. If severe, the injury can cause paralysis of areas of the body below the vertebral level of the injury.
When the adjacent vertebrae are fused together following the removal of a herniated disc. Meaning a surgical fixation to connect vertebrae.
A spiral-shaped break often caused by twisting stresses along a long bone.
Inflammation of joints of vertebrae. It is an uncommon condition of intervertebral joints that leads to a gradual inability to flex or bend the back.
A tear of collagen fibers within a ligament. Usually caused by stretching the ligament beyond its normal range without warming or slow stretching.
Caused by stretching a muscle beyond its normal range. It often causes bruising due to the tearing of muscle tissue and capillary damage.
temporomandibular joint disease
The temporomandibular joint is the junction of the mandible and the temporal bone, a disease of this joint is temporomandibular joint disease or, TMJ. Results are frequent dislocations making it difficult and painful to move the jaw during speaking or chewing.
Inflammation of a tendon.
Tendoon pain, syptom of "weekend athletes": people who work inactive jobs during the workweek and become very active on their days off.
The surgical procedure involving the repair of both muscle and tendons.
The suturing of a tendon to close a tear, such as a rip or tear to the Achilles tendon.
A form of tendonitis that also involves inflammation of the synovial membrane surrounding the joint.
A tenorraphy often includes the tenotomy procedure, during which one or more incisions are made into a tendon.
A surgical procedure that repairs damaged or diseased vertebrae.