Medical Terminology Ch. 6

192 terms by warrel66 

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a-, an-

without or absence of

brady-

slow

dys-

bad, abnormal, painful, difficult

epi-, ep-

upon, over, above, top

hyper-

excessive, abnormally high, above

para-, par-

alongside or abnormal

poly-

excessive, over or many

quadri-

four

ankyl/o

crooked

arthr/o, articul/o

joint

burs/o

purse or sac, bursa

carcin/o

cancer

carp/o

wrist

chondri, chondr/o

cartilage

condyl/o

knuckle of a joint

cost/o

rib

cran/o, crani/o

skull, cranium

electr/o

electricity

fasci/o

fascia

femor/o

thigh

fibr/o

fiber

fibul/o

fibula

ili/o

hip or groin, flank, ilium of the pelvis

ischi/o

ischium (hip bone)

kinesi/o

motion

kyph/o

hump

lamin/o

thin, lamina

leuk/o

white

lith/o

stone

lord/o

bent forward

menisci/o

meniscus

muscul/o

muscle

myel/o

bone marrow

my/o, myos/o

muscle

orth/o

straight

oste/o, ost/o

bone

pariet/o

wall

patell/o

patella

petr/o

stone

phalang/o

phalanges, fingers

phys/o

growth

por/o

hole

pub/o

pubis

radi/o

radius

sacr/o

sacrum

sarc/o

flesh or meat

scoli/o

curved

skelet/o

skeleton

spondyl/o

vertebra

stern/o

chest, sternum

syn/o

connect

synov/o, synovi/o

synovial

tars/o

tarsal bone

tax/o

reaction to a stimulus or movement

tend/o, ten/o, tendon/o

tendon

troph/o

development

vertebr/o

vertebra

-a, -ae

singular form, plural form

-algia

pain

-asthenia

weakness

-cele

hernia. swelling, or protrusion

-centesis

surgical puncture

-clasia, -clasis, -clast

break apart

-desis

surgical fixation, FUSION, or immobilization

-dynia

pain

-ectomy

surgical excision, removal

-emia

condition of blood

-genesis

origin, cause

-gram

a record or image

-graphy

recording process

-ia

condition of

-iatry

treatment, specialty

-ist

one who specializes

-itis

inflammation

-lysis

loosen or dissolve

-malacia

softening

-oma

tumor

-osis

condition of increase

-pathy

disease

-plasia

formation or growth, shape

-plasty

surgical repair

-plegia

paralysis

-ptosis

drooping

-rrhaphy

suturing

-scope

instrument, used for viewing

-scopy

process of viewing

-tic

pertaining to

-tomy

incision

-y

process of

achondroplasia

A disease that causes dwarfism. A dwarf is an individual with abnormally short limbs and stature.
a/chondr/o/plasia

ankylosis

Disease that means "condition of crooked." The persons joints are abnormally stiff and movement is difficult.
ankyl/osis

arthralgia

Joint pain. Often the first symptom of joint or bone disease. Also a common complaint following an injury to the joint.
arthr/algia

arthritis

Joint inflammation. A general disorder resulting in inflammation and degeneration of a joint.
arthr/itis

arthrocentesis

Excess fluids are aspirated, or withdrawn by suction, through a surgical puncture into the synovial cavity of the joint.
arthr/o/centesis

arthrochondritis

When the articular cartilage within synovial joints undergoes inflammatioin, resulting in joint pain during movement.
arthr/o/chondr/itis

arthroclasia

The breaking of an abnormally stiff joint during surgery to increase the range of motion, or ROM
arthr/o/clasis

arthrodesis

The surgical fixation of a joint.
arthr/o/desis

arthrogram

An X-ray of a joint after injecting a contrast media, air or both to highlight the synovial joint.
arthr/o/gram

arthrolysis

When a joint is loosened of abnormal restrictions, such as calcium deposits and bursliths.
arthr/o/lysis

arthroplasty

A procedure to repair a joint. A complete arthroplasty refers to a joint replacement.
arthr/o/scopy

arthrotomy

A surgical incision into the synovial cavity of a joint.
arthr/o/tomy

ataxia

The inability to coordinate muscles during a voluntary activity. A sign of a nervous system disorder that is often inherited.
a/tax/ia

atrophy

When a bone is casted to treat fractures a lack of movement in the limb leads to a reduction in muscle strength. Atrophy is a sign of reduced muscle size.
a/troph/y

bradykinesia

A condition of slow movement.
brady/kines/ia

bunion

An abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe, caused by inflammation of a bursa near the big toe.

bursectomy

Surgery involving the removal of a bursa from a joint.
burs/ectomy

bursitis

The inflammation of a bursa, which is a "purse or sac," and refers to a saclike bursa that cushions certain joints.
burs/itis

bursolith

A calcium deposit within a bursa of the foot. Diagnosis is confirmed with an X-ray, and is typically surgically removed.
burs/o/lith

carpal tunnel syndrome

Characterized by inflammation of the wrists that puts pressure on the median nerve resulting in local pain and restricted movement.

carpoptosis

Known as "wrist drop," its a weakness of the wrist resulting in difficulty supporting the hand.
carp/o/ptosis

chiropratic

A field of therapy that is centered on manipulation of bones and joints.

chondrectomy

A surgical removal, or excision, of the cartilage associated with a joint.
chondr/ectomy

chondronplasty

A surgical repair of cartilage associated with a joint.
chondr/o/plasty

colles' fracture

A break in the distal part of the radius

comminuted fracture

A break resulting in fragmentation of the bone.

compression fracture

A crushed break, often due to weight or pressure applied to a bone during a fall.

costectomy

A surgery involving the removal of a rib.
cost/ectomy

cramps

Prolonged, involuntary muscular contractions. Often in the stomach wall or thigh muscle after exercise.

cranioplasty

When one or more bones of the cranium undergo repair during surgery.
crani/o/plasty

craniotemy

Surgery of the brain
crani/o/tomy

decalcification

The abnormal reduction of calcium in bone. Often caused by hormonal disorder upsetting the calcium balance between the bloodstream and the bone.

degenerative joint disease

General term for the disease of joints in which the cartilage undergoes degeneration. It's progressive becoming worse over time. During the process, the articular cartilage degrades and is often replaced with bone.

diskectomy

Surgical procedure that is used to reduce the pain of a herniated disk by surgically removing the intervertebral disk.

displaced fracture

A break causing an abnormal alignment of bone pieces.

Duchenne's muscular dystrophy

Children occasionally born with a disease causing skeletal muscle degeneration, Abbreviated DMD, this disease has no cure.

dyskinesia

bad, abnormal, painful or difficult in movement. A common sign of musculoskeletal disorder.
dys/kines/ia

dystrophy

General term to describe a deformity arising during development. It is a sign of a congenital disease that occurs in different forms.

electromyography

The measuring of the strength of a muscle contraction.
electr/o/my/o/graphy

epicondylitis

Small bony elevations on the humerus near the elbow joint. This are of the elbow becomes inflammed usually due to an injury.
epi/condyl/itis

epiphyseal fracture

A break at the location of the growth plate, which can affect growth of the bone.

fasciotomy

A surgical incision into the connective tissue sheath surrounding a muscle.
fasci/o/tomy

fibromyalgia

A disease of unknown origin that produces widespread pain of musculoskeletal structures of the limb, face, and trunk. There is some evidence that it maybe, at least in part, caused by sleep deprivation.
fibr/omy/o/algia

fracture

A clinical term for a break in a bone.

gout

Sharp pain in the joints of the toes. Often caused by an abnormal accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joints, a waste product of protein metabolism.

greenstick fracture

A slight break in a bone that appears as a slight fissure in an X-ray.

herniated disk

The rupture of an intervertebral disk which places pressure against spinal nerves, creating back pain. A result of sudden movement or an attempt to lift a heavy object.

hypertrophy

The sign of excessive muscle growth or development. It is produced by the addition of protein to muscle fibers, which is stimulated by strenuous muscle activity.
hyper/troph/y

kyphosis

Occurs when the upper thoracic curve bends posteriorly, causing an abnormal hump at the upper back, often accompanies osteoporosis.
kyph/osis

laminectomy

Performed to treat herniated disk during which the part of a vertebrae known as the lamina is surgically removed to relieve pressure on the spinal cord.

leukemia

Malignant bone cancer that arises from the cells of the red bone marrow. Named after "condition of white blood" because of the high levels of deformed white blood cells.
leuk/emia

lordosis

An exaggerated anterior spinal curve with a congenital origin, usually in the thoracic or lumbar regions.

marfan's syndrome

Congenital disease that results in excessive cartilage formation at the epiphyseal plates (growth plates), forming abnormally long limbs and a tall, thin body.

meniscitis

A crescent-shaped band of cartilage that supports certain joints, such as the knee and shoulder.
menisc/itis

myalgia

The condition of muscle pain due to the buildup of lactic acids in the muscle tissue. This is temporary and only lasts about a day.
my/algia

myasthenia gravis

Characterized by a progressive failure of muscles to respond to nerve stimulation. Meaning serious muscle weakness.
my/asthenia

myeloma

A malignant tumor arising from the tissue site of the red bone marrow.
myel/oma

myocele

An injury to muscle that may cause the muscle to tear through the fascia (tough layer of connective tissue surrounding a muscle), and causing a protrusion.
my/o/cele

myoplasty

The surgical repair of a muscle.
my/o/plasty

myorrhaphy

The repair of a muscle when surgery is required to suture the torn ends together.
my/o/rrhaphy

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