Lachman's Final

82 terms by madelineanne 

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Everything from the study guide.

speed

distance an object travels per unit of time

average speed

calculated by dividing the total distance by the total time of travel

displacement

distance & direction of an object's position from the origin

velocity

includes speed and direction of motion

acceleration

occurs when an object changes its speed, direction, or both

inertia

the tendency of an object to resist change in motion

force

push or pull that one body exerts onto another

balanced forces

forces on a body that are equal in size and opposite in direction

instantaneous speed

speed at any given time

friction

force that opposes motion between two touching surfaces

weight

the gravitational force exerted on an object

momentum

the product of the mass of an object and its velocity

static friction

exists between two surfaces that are not moving past each other

gravity

when two masses exert an attractive force on each other

chemical potential

energy stored in the chemical bonds between atoms

gravitation potential

depends on the mass of the object, its height above the ground, and its acceleration due to gravity

joule

SI unit of energy

kinetic

energy in the form of motion

mechanical energy

the sum of the potential and kinetic energy in a system

elastic potential

energy stored by something that can stretch or compress

heat

produced by the flow of electrons through a material

insulator

material that does NOT allow electrons to easily flow through it

resistance

tendency of a material to oppose the flow of electrons through it

parallel circuit

type of circuit that mas more than one branch for current to flow

power

equals current X voltage difference

voltage

the "push" that cause charge to move in a circuit

series circuit

circuit with only one path for current to flow

transformer

can be used to increase or decrease the voltage in alternating current (AC)

electrical generator

converts mechanical energy into electrical energy

turbine

a large wheel that rotates when pushed by water, wind, or steam

poles

region where the magnetic forces of a magnet is strongest

direct current

batteries produce this type of electron flow

galvanometer

device that uses and electromagnet to measure electric current

electromagnetic induction

a generator works based on the principle

alternating current

reverses the direction of current flow in a regular way

electromagnet

made of a soft iron core surrounded by loops of current-carrying wire

fossil fuel

includes coal, petroleum, and natural gas

photovoltaic cell

converts light energy into electricity

petroleum

crude oil that is highly flammable former by decaying organisms

nonrenewable

energy source that cannot be replaced as fast as it used

biomass

includes organic matter such a wood and rice hulls

nuclear waste

radioactive by-product resulting from the use of radioactive sources

geothermal

thermal energy form the earth that can be used to generate electricity

hydroelectric

electrical energy produced from the energy of moving water

constructive interference

when two or more waves overlap and combine to form a new wave

diffraction

the bending of a wave as it changes speed when passing from one medium to another

wavelength

measured from crest to crest or trough to trough in a transverse wave

medium

matter that a wave travels through

transverse

matter moves back and forth at right angles to the direction the wave travels

compressional

an example of this type of wave is sound

frequency

the number of wavelengths that pass a given point each second

rarefraction

the less dense region of a compressional wave

amplitude

relates directly to the energy carried by a wave

sonar

uses reflected underwater sound waves to detect objects

dB (decibels)

units used to measure the intensity of sound

doppler effect

change of pitch or wave frequency due to a moving wave source

acoustics

the study of sound

ultrasonic

sound waves above the normal frequency range of human hearing

cochlea

part of the ear that converts sound waves into nerve impulses

resonator

hollow chamber filled with air that amplifies vibrating sound waves

visable

portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that you can see

infared

type of energy used to produce thermograms

ultraviolet

the ozone layer above the earth blocks much of this radiation

photon

particle whose energy is dependent on the frequency of the light

x-ray

often used in medicine to produce images of the body

electromagnetic spectrum

is composed of vibrating electrical and magnetic fields

gamma

very high energy, short wavelength wave that can damage cells

radio

short waves often used in communications

coherent light

light of only one wavelength that travels with its crest and troughs aligned

translucent

allows some light to pass through, but you cannot see clearly through it

infared

is produced when objects become so hot that that give off light

opaque

does not allow any light to pass through

pigment

colored material that absorbs some colors and reflects others

concave or diverging

lens that is thinner in the middle than at the edges

mirror

smooth, flat surface that reflects an image

focal length

distance from the center of lens or mirror to the point of focus

cornea

transparent outer covering of the eye

real image

image formed when light rays converge

optical axis

imaginary line drawn perpendicular to the surface of a mirror or lens at its center

retina

part of the eye that converts light images into electrical signals

convex or converging

lens that is thicker in the middle than on the edges

convex mirror

reflects an image that is virtual,upright, and smaller than the object

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