U.S. History Final Exam Review (Spring '11)

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Bonus Army March

Group of World War I veterans who marched on Washington, D.C., in 1932 (during the Great Depression) to demand the immediate payment of their pension bonuses, Largest protest

Social Security Act

Law passed in 1935 that provides retirement pensions, unemployment insurance, and payments to people with disabilities and to widows and children of male workers who had died.

Okies and Hobos

Are terms for migratory workers or homeless vagabonds who are often penniless.

Ended the Great Depression

WWII and the massive increase in production it caused

Major themes of books and movies in the 1930's

Underdogs overcoming obstacles, against all odds, anything that would make people feel happier or anything that emphasized American strength and victory in past and present.

When FDR said "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself"

At his first Inaugural Address on March 4, 1933. The speech was delivered in Washington, D.C., outside the Capitol Building. By saying this, FDR hoped to dissuade Americans from withdrawing money from banks and reassure their fears as the depression got worse.

The New Deal

Set a precedent because it required that the federal government directly intervene in people's lives. The executive branch also gained more power in the federal government as FDR took on politicians who opposed his reforms. The federal government took more responsibility in protecting the welfare of the average American.

Dust Bowl

A severe drought struck the Great Plains in the mid-1930s. Winds picked up topsoil that had loosened and dried, turning a 50-milllion-acre area into wasteland; plagues of grasshoppers devoured crops, which made problems in the Dust Bowl even worse. Farmers had over worked the land, which left the soil dry and dusty. Overgrazing was not a problem.

The Works Progress Administration

New Deal agency created in 1935 to put American men and women to work. The WPA employed some 8.5 million people during the Depression. It funded artistic, public-works, and research projects. The WPA greatly improved the nation's infrastructure.

Wagner Act

It established a minimum wage, a maximum number of hours, and the better ability of unions to be able to bargain collectively.

FDR's plans for the economy

Hoped that his programs would channel capital into the economy through consumers. Rather than using Hoover's trickle-down method of tax cuts, he worked from the bottom up. The government encouraged integrity in business as well. The three goals of the New Deal were "Relief, Recovery, and Reform." He wanted to provide relief through direct aid to the people, he wanted to recover the market, and he wanted to reform Wall Street.

Civilian Conservation Corps

Provided young men with jobs on various construction projects which aimed to strengthen the nation's infrastructure and modernize rural communities.

Terms of the Treaty of Versailles

Germany had to accept full responsibility for the war and pay reparations payments.

Isolationism/neutrality

Prominent US foreign policy in the years between WWI and WWII

Led to the declaration of war against Germany in WWII

Germany's invasion of Poland (POOOOOOOLANNNNDDDD!) in 1939.

Cause of the 1948 Arab-Israeli war

After WWII, many Jews moved to Jerusalem/Palestine. This caused conflict in the region. The UN, hoping to flex its muscles and resolve the conflict peacefully split Palestine in two, becoming Palestine and Israel.

Changes in geography after WWII

Germany, Berlin, and Austria were split among the allies.

The state of Europe before the US entered WWII. (What countries were allies? What countries were occupied? What countries were actively fighting?)

By the time the US entered the war, Britain was the only country actively fighting the war in Europe. France, Poland, Austria, and others were occupied and under Axis control. Italy and Japan were allied with Germany to make up the Axis powers. (By the time the US entered, Germany had already invaded Russia and Russia had (obviously) decided that it no longer wanted to side with Germany.

Isolationism/neutrality

America's policy toward entering WWII before Japan attacked Pearl Harbor

Relations between Japan and the US leading up to the Pearl Harbor attack

Bad news bears. The US had an embargo on Japanese goods, it refused to supply Japan with petroleum and other resources, and it froze Japanese bank accounts in the United States.

Lend Lease program

Was means of supporting the Allied powers without becoming involved in the war. (America could continue to be isolationist.)

Bataan Death March

Was the relocation of Allied POWs to prison camps in the Philippines.

Where the United States initially started fighting in WWII

Africa moving up through Italy and in the Pacific

D-Day

The amphibious invasion of the beaches of Normandy commanded by Dwight D. Eisenhower. This invasion was the first step in the Allied plan to liberate Europe.

Russia's position during WWII (How did it change?)

Was originally allied with Germany. Then Germany invaded Russia, so they switched sides.

Truman's reasons for using the atomic bomb

Because he wanted to avoid the huge casualties that would come with an invasion of Japan, because of the increased kamikaze missions on the part of the Japanese, and the belief that Japan would not surrender without a decisive strike.

Women's roles during WWII

They went to work, joined the army and navy, acted as nurses, but they did not do any actual fighting, fly planes, etc.

Executive Order 9066

Created Japanese concentration camps. Japanese Americans were interned because many saw the Japanese as faithful to their native culture and therefore, a security threat to the United States.

Problems European governments dealt with after WWI

Huge inflation, economic recession, rebuilding, etc. Because of these dire straits, the people of Europe asked their respective governments to take more control of the situation, leading to the rise of totalitarian dictators throughout Europe.

Germany, Italy, Russia

Axis Powers at the beginning of WWII

Similarities between Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin

Were totalitarian rulers, meaning they controlled the media, produced propaganda, had cults of personality, etc. They militarized their countries and promised economic growth through expansion of the government. Hitler and Mussolini were fascist. Stalin was communist/Marxist.

Bay of Pigs

Disastrous Cuban invasion in an attempt to overthrow Castro because Castro was communist, meaning that communism had sprung up 90 miles off the coast of Florida. Too close for comfort. Kennedy had his panties all in a twist about this. (major foreign policy tests faced by the Kennedy Administration)

Cuban Missile Crisis (aka Missiles of October)

Kennedy successfully quarantines Cuba when the Soviet Union attempts to arm Cuba with nuclear missiles (major foreign policy tests faced by the Kennedy Administration)

Berlin Crisis

Standoff between Khrushchev and Kennedy over control of West Germany. West Germany stays under western control, but Khrushchev builds the Berlin Wall as a result. (major foreign policy tests faced by the Kennedy Administration)

Operation Mongoose

A series of attempts to assassinate Castro (including exploding cigars hahaha); all attempts failed. (major foreign policy tests faced by the Kennedy Administration)

Korean War

Was the US attempt to contain communism. North Korea (communist) invaded South Korea (not communist). The US came to South Korea's aid. The war ended in a stalemate (no victor). Korea remained divided at the 38th parallel; North Korea remained communist and South Korea remained democratic.

US and the USSR during the Cold war

They competed technologically (arms race, space race), they spied on each other, there are economic and diplomatic clashes, but there is never a direct fight between Soviet and American forces.

Truman Doctrine

A statement in Truman's speech to Congress, the Soviets/communism weren't mentioned but he did have them in mind.

Marshall Plan

European Recovery Plan in which US gave (not loaned) $17 million to rebuild WWII Europe.

Containment

Foreign policy during the Cold War aiming to stop the spread of communism (domino effect) through economic aid, diplomacy, war, and covert war.

Khrushchev

Led Russia during Kennedy's presidency

Problems with Rock and Roll

Negatively influences youth, muddles language, controversial, rebel, sexual, supports INTEGRATION (not segregation)

advertising industry in the 1950's

Encourages conformity, increases American need/creates wants, need to keep up with the Joneses, makes people less individual

Johnson's

The phrase Guns and Butter refers to whos presidency when he tries to fund both war and social programs through his plans for both Vietnam and the Great Society

Spurred the growth of suburbia

Cheap homes, easy access to loans, the growth of the highway system, and the baby boom.

Joseph McCarthy

He attempted to gain national attention and bolster his own political career by initiating communist witch hunts within the US government.

nonviolent protest

Martin Luther King Jr. thought civil rights would be attained through

1963 during the March on Washington

When and where did Martin Luther King deliver his "I have a Dream" speech

March between Selma and Montgomery

Peaceful protestors were attacked with clubs, tear gas, dogs, etc. The violence of the movement came to national attention.

Compare Cesar Chavez and Martin Luther King Jr.

Both are nonviolent, follow the practices of Gandhi, work for civil rights through voting, marches, etc. Only MLK is a minister.

Black nationalism

Movement to create a new political state for African Americans in the United States.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Ban of discrimination in employment on basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin, enforced school desegregation, and equal voting rights.

Integration of Central High (1957 or Little rock 9)

As the Little Rock Nine begin to integrate (after Brown v Board of Education that knocked down separate but equal which had been established as legal precedent under Plessy v Ferguson), the Little Rock Nine face violence. Governor Faubus sends in the National Guard to prevent them from integrating the school. Eisenhower sends in the 101st Airborne to integrate the school.

SCLC

Alliance of church-based African American organizations formed in 1957 that was dedicated to ending discrimination. It was founded by MLK.

Plessy v. Ferguson

Lawsuit brought in 1896 after African American Homer Plessey was denied a seat in a first-class rail way car. Established the legal precedent of separate but equal.

Goals of the American Indian Movement

Movement called for a renewal of American Indian Culture and recognition of American Indian's rights, and recognition of past injustices/violated treaties. Though not originally the GOAL of the movement, it became militant, involving the occupations of Alcatraz and Wounded Knee.

Reasons the Feminist Movement fragmented

This movement served for wealthy white women rather than the non-white and working class. This movement offended many middle class women. It initially united all women but broke up over time. Because of the differing views within the movement, the movement did NOT encourage women to become whatever they wanted. It focused on creating quality and came about through women's involvement in other movements.

Freedom Summer

Was a program encouraging voter registration in Mississippi. The SCLC provided legal and medical protection for the workers registering voters. It was organized by Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Two white workers and one black worker were murdered. This shocked white America.

Founder of the SNCC

Ella Baker. The organization was comprised of students who advocated interracial cooperation and engaged in voter registration and non-violent direct resistance at a grassroots level.

The Montgomery Bus Boycott

a result of Rosa Park's refusal to give up her seat on a Montgomery bus

Black Power emerged because of

Physical and psychological abuse, continued violence, and the failure of the federal government to enforce laws, led to disillusionment with Martin Luther King Jr.'s idea of nonviolent resistance. Stokley Carmichael coined the phrase to embody this growing feeling among civil rights activists.

Chicano Movement

Was a series of student strikes, protests, pride in ethnic heritage, and efforts to better empower Mexican Americans politically and economically.

All had members who became frustrated with nonviolent resistance and decided to turn to violence.

Similarities between Black Panthers, the Weathermen, and the Brown Berets

Brown v. Board of Education

Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (separate but equal) to make segregation illegal in schools.

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

Congressional measure that gave President Lyndon B. Johnson the authority to wage war in Vietnam without congressional approval.

Issues with the draft during the Vietnam War

Many draft boards were clearly racist, leading to more minorities fighting and dying in Vietnam than their actual population proportion. Also, those drafted were disproportionately poor and working class. Most of those drafted did not have the right to vote (the voting age was 21). Finally college students received draft deferments.

Operation Rolling Thunder

US bombing campaign (particularly the Ho Chi Minh Trail) during the Vietnam War. The bombing failed to produce the desired results. Rather, it united the Vietnam people against the United States and prompted the US to use more chemical warfare. This level of bombing only increased as the war went on.

Body count

Success in the Vietnam war was measured by

Pentagon Papers, the My Lai Massacre, the killings at Kent State and Jackson State

They revealed that the government had frequently misled the American people about the course of the war. Turned public opinion against Vietnam.

Kennedy

Under this president direct combat in Vietnam began

Ho Chi Minh Trail (How did this affect those countries?)

Was in Laos and Cambodia. The countries were bombed to destroy the trail which was a supply line to the Vietcong in South Vietnam.

The Weathermen

Was a domestic terrorist organization that violently opposed the federal government and the war in Vietnam. They went as far as bombing federal buildings to show their level of opposition. Many of them had been part of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), become frustrated with the continued failure and slowness of the movement, and gone on to more violent efforts.

US was hesitant to support Ho Chi Minh because

Though Ho Chi Minh asked the United States for support, the United States was hesitant because Ho Chi Minh had communist leanings, allying Ho Chi Minh would mean the United States was Allied against the French, and finally the Vietminh in South Vietnam were very violent and murderous.

Vietcong

Were Vietnamese Communists in South Vietnam who fought the Americans during the Vietnam war.

War Powers Act (What did it respond to?)

Rescinded the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution that had given Johnson the ability to fight a war without having Congress declare war. Vietnam had been fought as an undeclared war.

Results of the Tet Offensive

Though Americans had an overwhelming victory, the fact that the Vietcong were able to organize such an elaborate attack destroyed American support for the war. This was a political and psychological victory for the Vietcong. It's just as Ho Chi Minh said, "You will kill ten of my men for every one I kill of yours, but even at those odds, you will lose and I will win."

Results of the Vietnam War

Communism spread throughout Vietnam soon after the United States pulled out when the North Vietnamese government overran the South Vietnamese government.

Roe v. Wade

Legalized abortion

Reaganomics

The theory that if the government reduced taxes and limited the regulations placed on businesses, the wealth would "trickle down" in the form of new jobs and opportunities.

Realpolitik

A policy embraced by Richard Nixon,was foreign policy theory that practical politics and the needs of the country should trump idealism, democracy, and human rights.

Watergate Scandal and the results

Richard Nixon and the Committee to Re-Elect the President attempted to spy on and sabotage the Democratic National Committee by using wire tapping at their offices in the Watergate Hotel and Office Building. As a result, Nixon resigned as members of congress called for his impeachment.

Nixon's supporters were

Known as the Silent Majority; they weren't as vocal as proponents of counterculture, civil rights activists, and anti war protestors. Though "silent," they did not approve of the handling of the Vietnam war, yet they were not radical and disapproved of the lack of patriotism on the part of the vocal minority. The elected Nixon on the promise that he would scale down and eventually end the Vietnam war.

Perestroika

Was a social and economic program that represented the beginning of the end of communism in Russia.

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