The Reformation of Christianity
|Reformation||A reform movement against the Roman Catholic Church.|
|indulgence||A document whose purchase from the pope was said to grant the bearer the forgiveness of sins he/she committed.|
|purgatory||In Catholic teachings, the place where souls of those who have died undergo limited torment to pay for their sins before entering heaven.|
|Martin Luther|| |
In 1517, he nailed a list of complaints about the Catholic church to the door of a church in Wittenberg; copies spread to neighboring states.
|Protestants||Those who sided with Martin Luther and protested against the Catholic church.|
|John Calvin|| |
He believed in predestination, the idea that God knew who would be saved even before they were born; his other ideas also led to the growth of capitalism.
|King Henry VIII|| |
King of England from 1509 to 1547 and founder of the Church of England; he broke with the Catholic Church because the pope would not grant him a divorce.
|Catholic Reformation||The effort to reform the Catholic church.|
|Ignatius of Loyola|| |
A Spanish noble and founder of the first new order in 1534.
|Francis Xavier|| |
A missionary who brought Catholicism to parts of India and Japan.
|Edict of Nantes||A document issued in 1598 by King Henry IV which gave religious freedom to Huguenots in most of France.|
|Thirty Years' War||A series of wars between Protestants and Catholics involving many European countries.|
|federalism||The sharing of power between local governments and a strong central government.|
|Ways the Roman Catholic Church regained its authority.||The Spanish Inquisition, the creation of new religious orders, the Council of Trent, and the fight against Protestants.|
|Ursuline Order||New religious order for girls.|
|Council of Trent|| |
Catholic clergy met and results included bishops had to live in areas they oversaw and the sale of indulgences was banned.
|The fight against Protestants||The pope created religious courts, a list of banned books and missionary work was used.|
|Protestant countries by 1600||England, Scotland, Norway and Sweden.|
|Prague, Bohemia||The Thirty Years' War began here.|
|Results of Reformation||Religious conflict, Roman Catholic Church reform, missionaries spread Catholicism, Northern Europe becomes mainly Protestant, and Protestant churches practice self-government.|
|Jesuits||A religious order founded to serve the pope and spread Catholic teachings; missionaries|
|congregation||A group of people who adhere to a common faith and habitually attend a given church; church assembly. In the Protestant church, they made their own rules and elected leaders.|
|Ninety Five Theses||A list of Martin Luther's issues with the Roman Catholic Church; he nailed these to the door of the Wittenburg Cathedral; thought to have launched the Reformation.|
Flickr Creative Commons Images
Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com. Click to see the original works with their full license.
- "Martin Luther" image
- "John Calvin" image
- "King Henry VIII" image
- "Ignatius of Loyola" image
- "Francis Xavier" image
- "Council of Trent" image
This product uses the Flickr API but is not endorsed or certified by Flickr.