A reform movement against the Roman Catholic Church.
A document whose purchase from the pope was said to grant the bearer the forgiveness of sins he/she committed.
In Catholic teachings, the place where souls of those who have died undergo limited torment to pay for their sins before entering heaven.
In 1517, he nailed a list of complaints about the Catholic church to the door of a church in Wittenberg; copies spread to neighboring states.
Those who sided with Martin Luther and protested against the Catholic church.
He believed in predestination, the idea that God knew who would be saved even before they were born; his other ideas also led to the growth of capitalism.
King Henry VIII
King of England from 1509 to 1547 and founder of the Church of England; he broke with the Catholic Church because the pope would not grant him a divorce.
The effort to reform the Catholic church.
Ignatius of Loyola
A Spanish noble and founder of the first new order in 1534.
A missionary who brought Catholicism to parts of India and Japan.
Edict of Nantes
A document issued in 1598 by King Henry IV which gave religious freedom to Huguenots in most of France.
Thirty Years' War
A series of wars between Protestants and Catholics involving many European countries.
The sharing of power between local governments and a strong central government.
Ways the Roman Catholic Church regained its authority.
The Spanish Inquisition, the creation of new religious orders, the Council of Trent, and the fight against Protestants.
New religious order for girls.
Council of Trent
Catholic clergy met and results included bishops had to live in areas they oversaw and the sale of indulgences was banned.
The fight against Protestants
The pope created religious courts, a list of banned books and missionary work was used.
Protestant countries by 1600
England, Scotland, Norway and Sweden.
The Thirty Years' War began here.
Results of Reformation
Religious conflict, Roman Catholic Church reform, missionaries spread Catholicism, Northern Europe becomes mainly Protestant, and Protestant churches practice self-government.
A religious order founded to serve the pope and spread Catholic teachings; missionaries
A group of people who adhere to a common faith and habitually attend a given church; church assembly. In the Protestant church, they made their own rules and elected leaders.
Ninety Five Theses
A list of Martin Luther's issues with the Roman Catholic Church; he nailed these to the door of the Wittenburg Cathedral; thought to have launched the Reformation.