Biology Exam 4

Created by coldluna15 

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The lymphatic system is responsible for returning blood loss from the capillaries to circulation

True

White blood cells kill invading cells in the body

True

Natural Killer Cells are a very important defense against cancer cells

True

Organs are body structures composed of several different tissues

True

Stomach acid kills bacteria

True

Blood platelets contain nuclei

False

Individuals with a BMI of over 25 are considered overweight

True

Increasing human body temperature is a way for the body to fight the pathogenic bacteria?

True

Autoimmune response is the body's immune system ability to attack their own cells

True

Our circulatory system transports oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the body

True

A single cardiac cycle is the period between the start of the right atrium contracting to the end of the left atrium contraction

False

Average blood volume for an adult male is 5 - 6 liters and for an adult female is 4 - 5 liters

True

hormone whose levels remain high when the body is suffering from inflammation and stress is:

cortisol

The "fight-or-flight" response is enhanced by secretions:

known as epinephrine and norepinephrine

Blood glucose levels are regulated by:

insulin, glucagon, and cortisol

Prolactin:

stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk.

Oxytocin has specific effects on the:

uterine wall

If you were cast upon a desert island with no fresh water to drink, which of the following would increase in your bloodstream in an effort to conserve water?

antidiuretic hormone

The pituitary gland is controlled by the:

hypothalamus

Which gland could be called the "master gland" because of the extent of its effects on the body?

pituitary

The primary purpose of the endocrine system is to:

maintain a relatively constant internal environment.

The molecule that binds oxygen contains globin proteins with four attached ____.

heme groups

Actual exchange of gases in the lungs occurs in the:

alveoli

The human vocal cords are located in the:

larynx

When you swallow, the epiglottis covers the opening to the:

larynx

Food and drink are prevented from entering the respiratory passageways during swallowing by means of the:

epiglottis

Name the structure that is positioned in the pathway of air just before the alveoli.

bronchioles

Which of the following is NOT a function of the nasal cavities?

oxygenate the blood

What is the proper sequence of air flow in the human respiratory system?

nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi

The primary function of the large intestine is the:

removal of H2O from undigested food.

Bile:

helps in the digestion of fats

The digestion of fats mostly occurs in the:

Small Intestine

The first part of the small intestine is the:

duodenum

Which of the following are tiny projections of the mucosal wall?

Villi

High stomach acidity:

favors protein digestion

Chewing:

physically and mechanically breaks up the food, aids in forming the food into a consistency suitable for swallowing, increases the surface area of food exposed to digestive enzymes, actually mixes some enzymes with the food

Which process propels the food down the esophagus into the stomach?

peristalsis

Sphincters;

are muscles in circular arrangement, prevent backflow, are smooth muscles, are found at the beginning and end of the stomach.

If the motor cortex on the right side of the brain is destroyed by a stroke, what would be impaired?

movement by the left side of the body

The center of consciousness and intelligence is the:

cerebrum.

Areas of the spinal cord appear glistening white because of:

myelin sheaths.

The autonomic subdivision consists specifically of:

parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves

The two principal divisions of the peripheral nervous system are the

somatic and autonomic systems

By definition, a nerve is:

a bundle of axons.

Which of the following would NOT be a part of the central nervous system?

spinal nerves

Clusters of cell bodies of neurons outside the central nervous system are known as:

Ganglia

The two main divisions of the nervous system are:

central and peripheral

A deterioration in the myelin sheaths of motor axons to the lower leg would be expected to:

slow the rate of transmission and cause lack of motor control.

Saltatory ("jumping") conduction:

involves both a quicker type of nerve conduction and the movement of impulses from node to node

The spaces that separate adjacent Schwann cells are called:

nodes

The myelin sheath:

is formed by the Schwann cell, speeds up the transmission of impulses, does not surround all nerves, extends from node to node.

Which is a junction between two neurons

synapse

Neuroglial cells:

metabolically support other neurons, form sheaths around neurons and control the rate of impulse transmission, form more than half of the volume of the brain, provide physical support.

Within a single neuron, the direction an impulse follows is

dendrite >>> cell body >>> axon

The principal job of the human nervous system is to

facilitate communication among the body systems

The sliding filament mechanism:

describes the action of the actin and myosin in a muscle cell.

During contraction:

cross bridges of muscle filaments are broken and reformed, ATP is used, muscle cells use glycogen, if poor supply of oxygen, then lead to fatigue.

During muscle contractions:

The myofibrils shorten, the actin and myosin filaments slide over each other, the actin filaments move toward the middle of the sacromere during contraction and away on relaxation, the muscle thickens.

Each muscle fiber is also called a:

muscle cell

Smooth muscle is:

involuntary and nonstriated.

Functions and properties of the axial skeleton include all of the following except ________.

supports and protects abdominopelvic organs, contains special sense organs, attachment sites for muscle used in respiration, contains joints reinforced with ligaments

E) contains tarsals and metatarsals

Which of the following is not part of the axial skeleton?

the pelvis

All of the following are functions of the bony skeleton except ______.

production of blood cells, support and protection, transmission of muscular forces by acting as levers

C) storage of vitamins

The uptake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide is called:

respiration

What are the contractile protein fibers of a muscle cell?

actin and myosin

The thyroid gland becomes swollen when a person has a deficiency in:

iodine

Allergies are caused by hyperactivity of the:

immune system

The endocrine and nervous system are both similar in that both:

control and connect

The most complex organ to evolve is the:

brain

Norepinephrine and epinephrine are the:

flight or fight response

Which of the following exerts control over the anterior pituitary?

hypothalamus

The lymphatic system is like the circulatory system in that they both:

carry fluids

The transfer of oxygen to the body's cells takes place in the_____________.

capillaries

The inflammatory response involves ________________: release of chemical alarm signals

redness, swelling

Increasing human body temperature, i.e. causing a fever, assists the immune system because:

pathogenic bacteria do not grow well at high temperatures

Plasma is made up of water and

Wastes, Salt, Protien, Ions & Metabolites

Oxygen is transported by

hemoglobin

Which of the following is carried by hemoglobin?

Oxygen

The arms and legs belong to what part of the skeleton?

appendicular

The bone disorder where the bones are loosing minerals is called:

osteoporosis

How many calories in a gram do we get from fat?

9

The deltoid muscle is located :

in the back/shoulder

The pectoralis major muscle is located:

in the chest

The basic unit of the nervous system is

The neuron

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