Chapter 34 Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems.

Arteries

blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart

Capillaries

tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body

Veins

blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart

Valves

flaps of tissue that open and close to allow the flow of blood in one direction only. The heart's valves are located at the entrances and exits of its chambers

Heart

multi-chambered, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body

Pacemaker

small group of cardiac muscle cells in the right atrium that "set the pace" for the heart as a whole; also known as the sinoatrial node

Plasma

the liquid part of blood

Red Blood Cell

A cell in the blood that takes up oxygen in the lungs and delivers it to cells elsewhere in the body

Platelet

fragment of a blood cell originating in the bone marrow that is involved in blood clotting

White Blood Cells

A blood cell that functions in defending the body against infections and cancer cells

Atherosclerosis

a condition in which an artery wall thickens as a result of the buildup of fatty materials

Breathing

The process by which oxygen is taken in through the lungs and carbon dioxide is released out from the lungs.

External Respiration

Exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood

Internal Respiration

exchange of gases between the blood and the cells of the body

Trachea

the windpipe

Bronchus

either of the two main branches of the trachea

Lung

either of two saclike respiratory organs in the chest of vertebrates

Alveolus

tiny air sac at the end of a bronchiole in the lungs that provides surface area for gas exchange to occur

Kidney

either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine

Urea

waste product formed in the liver, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, and excreted in urine

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