Biology Vocab Lap 5 & 6
|histone|| helpsmaintain the shape of a chromosome|
and aid in the tight packing of DNA
|nonhistone protiens||controlsthe activity of specific regions of DNA.|
|chromatid||chromatid is one-half of a chromosome|
|centromere|| is the area of a chromatid that holds|
the two chromatids in a chromosome together
|sex chromosone|| is a chromosome that determines|
the sex of an organism
|autosome||is any other chromosome|
|diploid cell|| has both chromosomes in each|
|haploid cell|| has only one|
chromosome in each homologous pair.
|telophase|| it is a phase of mitosis,|
and the other three are phases of interphase
|interphase|| it is a phase of the cell|
cycle, and the other three are phases of mitosis.
|binary fission|| it pertains to|
prokaryotes, and the other three pertain to
|spindle fibers|| it pertains to|
nuclear division, and the other three pertain to
|Vesicles|| vesicles are organelles,|
some of which participate in cytoplasmic division,
and the other three are involved in nuclear division.
|oogenesis|| Oogenesis is the production of mature egg cells,|
|tetrad|| A tetrad is a pair of homologous chromosomes lined|
up next to each other during prophase I of meiosis.
|independent assortment|| Independent assortment is the random separation|
of homologous chromosomes during anaphase I
|polar bodies|| Polar bodies are haploid offspring cells produced|
by meiosis during oogenesis
|purine|| A purine is a nitrogenous base with two rings of|
carbon and nitrogen atoms. Examples may include
adenine or guanine.
|purine|| A pyrimidine is a nitrogenous base with one ring|
of carbon and nitrogen atoms. Examples may
include cytosine or thymine.
|complementary base-pair|| A complementary base-pair is a pair of nitrogenous|
bases connected to each other by hydrogen
bonds. Examples may include adenine-thymine
|nitrogenous base|| A nitrogenous base is a base in DNA containing|
nitrogen and carbon.
|replication fork|| A replication fork is a Y-shaped region that results|
when the two strands of DNA separate during
|helicase|| A helicase is an enzyme that separates the strands|
of DNA during replication.
|Semi-conservative replication|| Semi-conservative replication produces a new|
DNA molecule with one original strand and one
|codon|| is a sequence of three mRNA nucleotides|
that codes for a specific amino acid or a start or
|Translation||Translation is the process of assembling polypeptides|
|anticodon|| anticodon is a sequence of three tRNA|
nucleotides that pairs with a specific codon.
|F1 generation|| The F1 generation consists of the offspring of a|
cross between two parents
|F2 generation|| F2 generation consists|
of the offspring of a cross between two individuals
in the same F1 generation.
|dominant|| dominant factor is one that masks the effect of|
another factor for the same characteristic
|recessive|| a recessive|
factor is one whose effect is masked by another
factor for the same characteristic.
|self-pollination|| Self-pollination occurs between flowers on the same|
|cross-pollination|| cross-pollination occurs between flowers on|
|complete dominance||kind of dominance where in the dominant allele completley makes the effect of the recessive allele in heterozygos condition|
|incomplete dominance||is a form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific trait is not completley dominate over the other allele|
|codominance||refers to a relationship between two alleles of a gene|
|germ-cell mutation|| A germ-cell mutation occurs in one of an organism's|
|somatic-cell mutation|| somatic-cell mutation occurs in one of|
the other cells in an organism's body.