• Three Cs (control of corporations, consumer protection, conservation - especially natural resources), "New Nationalism"
• 1902 Coal Strike, Railroad Legislation (Elkins Act; Hepburn Act), Northern Securities Company vs. US, 1906 Meat Inspection Act, 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act, National Park Service, Hetch Hetchy Dam Controversy
William Howard Taft
• Anti-trust legislation, Standard Oil vs. US, US Steel Corp vs. US, Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
• He won the election in 1912 mostly because the popular vote was split between Taft and Roosevelt
• "New Freedom", "Moral Diplomacy", Underwood Tariff Bill, Progressive Income Tax, 1913 Federal Reserve Act, 1914 Federal Trade Commission Act, Clayton Anti-Trust Act
• For the first time proper regulations and precaution were enforced for controlling the trusts problem
• blacks should never accept their inferiority; government's fault for creating inferior black class.
• Founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored Persons (NAACP). Formed the Niagara Movement to demand full civil rights for blacks. The Soul of Black Folks—new approach to civil rights (1903). Believed in education for blacks, not just one skill.
• advocated that African Americans should support the government and patriotism during the war
• campaigned for honest government and an end to the business abuse
• journalist who published a devastating but factual display of the Standard Oil Company
• Was a preservationist who was against Roosevelt and Gifford's plan to allow national parks be used by public. Felt that it needed to be saved.
• He pioneered "sustainable public use" of forest with Roosevelt
• led the National Women's Party - this was the more moderate of the two women's agencies - The combined efforts of both were directly responsible for the passing of the 19th Amendment
Carrie Chapman Catt
• created the National American Women's Suffrage Association (one of two MAJOR women's rights organizations - this was the more moderate of the two)
Coal Stike of 1902
• Dramatically reverse the government's position on labor
• Roosevelt threatened the coal firm that he would take total control of the company with force from the troops until they came to an agreement with the labor union.
1906 Meat Inspection Act
• it set standards for inspection in the meat packing industry ; somewhat influenced by Upon Sinclair's The Jungle.
1906 Pure Food and Drug Act
• it established certain health standards and made it necessary for companies to disclose information on their products and its contents.
• Expansion of ICC and regulation of bribes
• Kind of anti-trust and anti-corruption
• 16th: placed an income tax so now taxes were proportional to the economic status of a person and helped lessen the gap between upper and lower class.
• 17th: Gives the public the right to vote for Senators and helps eliminate corruption in the government
• 18th: Prohibition (6tt6). It makes the consumption of alcohol, which leads to domestic violence and breaking apart of families, illegal.
• 19th: It gives women the right to vote.
• a Professor from Columbia University who believed in "learning by doing" and "education for life" so that the student is more prepared for life and the work force
• Education focused on the individual student and accommodated to their needs
• Hands-on learning/ experimental learning
• Set up the New School for Social Research in 1919
• University of Chicago Laboratory Schools in 1896
• Work union leader who believed in Communism; was a leader in violent rebellions such as Pullman Strike
• He was a part of the International Worker of the World (IWW), a socialist labor group also called "Wobblies"
• Organized marches for children; Put in jail for going on strike with boys working in coal mine but later freed once government investigated coal mine
Women's Christian Temperance Union
• Launched by Frances Willard in 1874
Ida B. Wells
• 1895 A Red Record; lynching of "uppity" blacks; economic competition-only ¼ even accused of rape
• African American Rights
• (Fighting Bob): governor of Wisconsin who emerged as the most militant of progressive Republican leaders after fighting with entrenched monopolies.
• He wrestled considerable control from the crooked corporations and returned it to the people
• An American sex educator, birth control activist and the founder of the American Birth Control League
• Was against the Comstock Law and often caused scandal due to that
• The 18th amendment which banned alcohol consumption. It was extremely controversial and only lasted from 1919 - 1930 when the 21st Amendment was passed to repeal it.
• Though it was implemented to prevent drunken behaviors it wasn't extremely successful it only increased crime and illegal activities.
• presided over a return to prosperity after the Panic of 1893 and made gold the base of the currency
• demanded that Spain end its atrocities in Cuba, which were outraging public opinion; Spain resisted the interference and the Spanish-American War became inevitable in 1898
• assassinated in 1901, and succeeded by his VP Theodore Roosevelt
Albert T. Mahan
• a naval officer and author of "The Influence of Sea Power on History"
• promoted military dominance as the logical outcome of US expansion and said the navy helped build power on all levels
• argued that the US must "cast aside the policy of isolation which befitted her infancy [and] begin to look outwards."
• They were basically reporters, the media, who dug up stories of corruption and stories that called for reforms with their investigation skills and published them to get social reforms for particular atrocities
Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle"
• It was a result of muckraking and it exposed the flaws of the meat industry which was disgusting and unsanitary
• It downplayed/manipulated legitimate new in favor of popularity, drama, and sensationalized news stories because that would sell magazines and sway public opinion
• William Randolph Heart (New York Journal) and Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) were the two most popular muckrakers
• Taft was seen as setting aside more public forestland than Roosevelt, but I the end was seen as siding with big business due to this affair.
• Ballinger authorized public land for private enterprises angering Pinchot so Taft fired Pinchot angering Roosevelt as Pinchot was Roosevelt's right hand environment man
Underwood Tariff Bill
• It reduced import fees and implemented a new tax system. Lowered prices and increased world competition. It also led to progressive income tax.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
• It strengthened the Sherman Anti-Trust Act by including regulating price discrimination and interlocking directorates (JP Morgan)
• It exempted labor and agricultural organizations.
1913 Federal Reserve Act
• Considered the most important piece of economic legislation between the Civil War and the New Deal
• Created 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks that were supervised by the Federal Reserve Boards
• Provided a flexible national currency and improved access to credit - saved the nation during WWI
1914 Federal Trade Commission Act
• Regulated unfair trade practices, unlawful competition, false advertising, mislabeling, and bribes. It made these all illegal and put a heavy punishment as a consequence.
NAACP - goals and strategies
• National Association for the Advancement of Colored Persons
Imperialism - define, types
• The policy and practice of exploiting nations and peoples for the benefit of an imperial power either directly through military occupation and colonial rule or indirectly through economic domination of resources and markets.
• Supported by Social Darwinism and missionaries
• The most sound economic policy is to prosecute and eliminate bad trusts and promote but regulate good ones because that is what collectivism asks and also monopolies are inevitable
• Wilson's reform platform → stronger anti-trust legislation, banking reform, tariff reductions
• The US has the right to act as an international police to the Western Hemisphere and foreign countries cannot imperialize in the Western Hemisphere anymore because it is under US's protection
• Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, which asserted the right of the US to act as the international police power in Latin America. We will not only keep others nations out - but also police the nations that are in the Western Hemisphere.
Big Stick Diplomacy
• Roosevelt advocated peaceful relations with other nations but also wanted a strong international US presence that would ensure the strength and the power of the US. This policy is summarized by the West African proved - "Speak softly and carry a big stick"
• Taft's US policy of using private investment in other nations to promote American diplomatic goals and business interests. He described his plan as "substituting dollars for bullets."
• Wilson wanted o secure US economic interests abroad, but also maintained that the United States should champion democracy around the globe and help maintain world peace
• He emphasized American ideal such as self-determination, but still allowed the US to interfere with the affairs of other countries
Spanish- American War - Causes, Consequences
• Yellow Journalism, Spanish treatment of Cuban and Filipino revolutionaries and most importantly the sinking of the USS Maine were causes.
• Highlights: Dewey's fleet captures Manila in 7 hrs, Emilio Aguinaldo betrayed by US, Roosevelt's military fame, "Moonlight Excursion" - capturing Puerto Rico
• Treaty of Paris of 1898: US pays Spain $20 million and gets 100,00 sq. miles of land and 10 million people; Spain makes Cuba independent and cedes Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines to US
• it limited Cuban's right to borrow from foreigners, US right to intervene in Cuban affair for US lives and property protection, promised 2 naval bases for US on the island
Open Door Policy
• no powers can prevent other from trading in spheres, all import or export taxes collected by Chinese gov, no power ask for harbor/railroad duties that were discriminatory towards other powers in the sphere. [Did not help the Chinese at all]
Causes of WWI
• Militarism: glorification, new technology, Bismarck
• Alliances: triple entente, central powers
• Nationalism: protecting your own country; cultures that want freedom to practice their own beliefs and separate as their own
• Imperialism: expansion into different areas of the world, caused many conflicts and competition between great powers
• Assassination: Archduke Franz Ferdinand was murdered in Serbia by a member of Apis named Gavrilio Princip
Committee on Public Information
• (CPI) (George Creel) - sought to manipulate and shape public opinion in support of the war effort via media, advertising, etc.
War Industries Board
• government agency established during World War I to coordinate the purchase of war supplies
• encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to increase efficiency and urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing products
• set production quotas and allocated raw materials. It also conducted psychological testing to help people find the right jobs.
• The draft, during WWI the only exceptions to the draft were people with moral (religious) reasons not to fight e.g. Pacifists
Espionage Act of 1917
• The vague wording allows for suppression of most dissent and criticism of the war efforts or the government
Sedition Act of 1918
• Severe penalties for speaking out against the draft, bond sales, taxes, and the government military plan. They punished anything that presented a clear and present danger to the US could be regulated.
• It was a telegram sent from Germany to Mexico proposing a correspondence that would have Mexico be enemies with the US and then Germany would help Mexico get back its old lands; it was intercepted by the US and a big reason to enter the war
U-Boat - Sussex
• The SS Sussex was a passenger ship that was torpedoed by a German sub in 1916 which pissed of US and Allies pretty bad
• passenger ship that was sunk by German U-boats in 1915 and a big source of propaganda and one of the reasons why US entered the war
• It was a deal with Germany that banned unrestricted submarine warfare and promised that passenger ships would not be targeted, merchant ships would not be sunk without presence of U-boats established, search conduct, and safety of passengers and crew.
Wilson's 14 Points
• The purpose was peace in Europe. It included self-determination for all people, disarmament, democratic government in all of Europe, and the League of Nations that we never joined was the only point we got. No secret treaties. Free traveling through seas. Reduction of trade barriers. Reduce military supplies. Imperial nations should think about the countries they control better. The overall purpose was to rearrange the map and change boundaries and territories. Cartographers were pretty irritated. To have a league of Nations like the UN now.
Treaty of Versailles
• The armistice was declared at 11 am November 11, 1918. Treaty was 1919. This area was chosen to show imperial power of France and Europe. And a symbol of presence and prestige. The Big 4 were there; England, France, The United States, and Italy. Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required Germany and its allies to accept the blame for causing the war and disarm, make substantial territorial concessions and pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. About billions of dollars.
League of Nations
• This was the only point received of Wilson's 14 points, but the Senate did not agree to join the league of nations