German General, guided German military operations, and most German leaders to make one final military gamble - a grand offensive in the west to break the military stalemate. He informed German leaders the war was lost, and they should sue for peace.
Paul von Hindenburg
One of the victorious German commanders at the battle of Tannenberg. After the defeat, he was promoted to supreme commander in the east. At 77 he became president of the Weimer republic after William II's empire
French hero of war during WWI. Commanded 2nd army and commanded French troops at the Battle of Verdum. Implemented the system of rotating troops from the battlefront.
Lawrence of Arabia
British official - Incited Arab populations to rebel and overthrow their Ottoman rulers.
David Lloyd George
Prime minister of Britain. He won his vote by promising the British that he'd make the Germans pay for the war. One of the big 4 at the Paris conference
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
Assassinated by a Serbian National. His death sparked the beginning of WWI. Because he was Austrian, Austria-Hungary and Germany declared was on Serbia and it's allies.
American President during WWI. Drew up the "Fourteen Points" with the goal of establishing lasting peace. Tried to convince congress to join the league of nations but failed.
Took control of the Bolsheviks in Russia during the Revolution. Led the Red Army and gained power over Russia after the Russian Civil War. Founded the USSR
his superior was Lenin. Commanded the Red Army - led his troops to victory in the Russian Civil war. Leader of October Revolution in 1917.
Headed provisional government after Czar abdicated. Supported democracy just like allies, also felt the need to keep promise to allies and continue fighting in war, which was his eventual demise
He was the Czar of Russia. Known as a bad leader, lack of leadership skills. Relied on other people to make his decisions and did not want to share his power. Heavily influenced by his wife, Alexandra.
President during the great depression. Helped establish the "New Deal" which was a government intervention to help the economy. The Works Progress Administration which employed 2-3 mil people was under his administration.
She was a supporter of revolutionary socialism while in exile in Switzerland. Russian Communist revolutionary. First member of the Mensheviks, then a Bolshevik. Established a program for women's rights and social welfare reforms. Established Palaces for the Protection of Maternity and Children.
General secretary of the soviet party. Able to consolidate power over RUssia after Lenin's death. Replaced the 1920's New Economic Policy with a 5 year plan. Led to rapid industrialization and economic collectivization of the country's land.
war of attrition
a war where nothing really happens, just a bunch of people dying, no one winning or losing
Act of mobilizing troops to battle positions, in effect preparing for battle.
war that effects everyone in many ways, not just the soldiers. Country's industry goes towards a war effort. Civilians may be subject to the attack.
opposing forces attack and counterattack from a relatively permanent system of trenches.
pictures with words that influenced people to either want a revolution or to be for the war
policy of having your entire country geared towards building up the military and preparing for war
nationalistic movement started by the Russians to unite all Slavs so they could get independence
secret Serbian group that organized the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria
German military strategy which involved crossing the neutral Belgium in order to invade France. Two front war strategy
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty signed by Lenin with Germany which gave up eastern Poland, the Ukraine, and the Baltic Provinces. Lenin di not think it made a difference bc the spread of socialist revolution would make up for the land lost.
switchover of one nation to another due to the effects of WWI, happened in the League of Nations
the principle in which nations have the right to choose their own government rule without any external influence
The Fourteen Points
speech given by President Woodrow Wilson outlining specific proposals for the reparations and restorations after WWI
The Dawes Plan
New plan for reparations produced by the international commission. Reduced reparations and stabilized Germany's payment on the basis of it's ability to pay. It granted $200 mil loan for Germany recovery, which gave Americans opportunity to invest in Europe which led to European prosperity
Second Battle of Ypres
First time gas was used as a weapon in war (by Germans)
Battle of Verdun
longest single battle of WWI
France, England & Russia in WWI
Germany, Austria-Hungary & Italy in WWI
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Italy(beginning) in WWI
Britain, France, Russia, Belgium, Serbia, Japan, Italy(later)
Tsarist troops open fire upon a peaceful demonstration of workers in St. Petersburg
Short for something proposed by Lenin, included some private businesses
anti art movement, attempt to enshrine the purpose of life
conveyed the imaginary by extending reality, move toward functionalism in modern architecture, artistic movement during WWI
Stream of Consciousness
writer presented an interior monologue, report of the innermost thoughts of the character, author example - James Joyce
money offered to projects in other countries that eventually led them into debt - mean
used in africa to treat villagers for malaria, brought by Europeans - mean
people sent around the world to help imperialize their country, religious, seen doing good things - mean
White Man's Burden
notion that "more advanced" white people had moral responsibility to raise "ignorant natives" - mean
when a person moves from one country to another
threat of war if the colony did not agree to the superior countries trades. Superior country used it's strong military base to take over and intimidate a colony - mean
drug that opened the door for western world to trade with china - mean
hosted by Bismarck 1884 - Europeans discussed the annexations of African territories
a concept devised by European colonial governments to rule their colonial subjects without the participating of local authorities. ex. French colonies such as Vietnam
a colony policy of foreign rule in cooperation with local political elites
local ruler kept his title, but officials of the foreign power actually controlled the region. The "protecting" power kept out other foreign nations. Done to PROTECT their interests in the region. ex. North Vietnam
joint control of a country's or territory's affairs by other countries
Sphere of Influence
region in which one nation had special, sometimes exclusive, economic and political privileges that were recognized by other nations ex. Latin America was part of the US's
foreigners can go in and do their business the way they want without being subject to the laws of the country they are in . I f a crime is committed the foreigners have to be punished by the laws of your country ex. Practiced in Japan
grants given to foreign merchants or capitalists who wanted to trade, to build railroads, or to develop mineral deposits and other natural resources. The country granting the concession thought it would help them out, but it was actually detrimental to them in the long run
unpaid loans led to debt and debt led to foreign intervention ex. mostly in Latin America
a demand that citizens of one nation won't be subject to the laws of another nations
major politician and imperialist in South Africa - British empire builder
Brought gifts to Chine in 1793, and proposed that a British ambassador be placed in Bejing. Chinese emperor declined
British explorer that explored Africa, governor of Hong Kong and Governor-Genral of Nigeria. Tried to help keep the British in front of the other European powers
last emperor of Russia, led Russia in the Crimean War
King Leopold II
From Belgium. Made rights to use the area by making treaties with native chiefs - Made Congo his own region to control, and gave it to the Belgium gov before he died
King of Ethiopia who hired experts to plan modern roads and bridges and set up a western school system. Imported the latest weapons and European officers to help train his army. Destroyed Italy when it tried to attack
Ottoman army officer. Came to Egypt after Napoleon and brought in European armies to train the Egyptians. Helped the economy using the exports of raw materials. Expanded empire and helped establish a public education system.
From Great Britain - Entered different territories for the 3 C's --> Christianity, Commerce, Civilization. Scientfic investigator and explorer
Ram Mohan Roy
Brahmin from Bengal. Founded the society of Brahman. Had no intention of promoting Indian national independence but created the new organization as a means of helping his fellow religionists defend the Hindu religion against British
Admiral Matthew Perry
Arrived in Edo Bay with his "Black Ships" form the US; wanted Japan to open up their trade ports and threatened them with his gun boats. Treaty of Kanagawa proceeded his threat to the Japanese - finally opened
group that favored the reformation of the Ottoman Empire.
group that criticized Tanzimat reforms. All wanted individual freedom, local autonomy and political decentralization
chinese official during the Qing dynasty; against opium trade; primary catalyst of the first opium war
Ruled Qing Dynasty China, beginning her rule through real emperor who was a child. Put an end to the 100 days reform. Took over after nephew
Ferdinand de Lesseps
French, developer of Suez Canal project
Revive China society, revolutionary alliance based on "three people's principles" of nationalism, democracy, and people's livelihood
communism side of the wing
socialism and nazism side of the wing
race Hitler considered to be supreme and the most pure
laws that forbid Jews from marrying and having affairs with non-Jewish people; denied citizenship to Jews
Started by the assassination of the German ambassador in Paris by a Polish Jew. First act of public violence towards Jews, "night of the broken glass"
Totalitarian rightest leader that was aided by the fascist who took control of Spain. Openly supported Hitler and Mussolini but did not participate in WWII.
Fascist leader of Italy who became friends with Hitler. Father of Fascism. Ousted from Italy by Allied Invasion, placed head of puppet state set up by Nazi Germany.
treaty made between Stalin and Hitler, giving Hitler freedom to attack Poland. He did this because he feared that the Western European stated and the Soviet Union would form an alliance.
What kind of regime are the following? Charasmatic leaders, mobilizing the public, anti-Communist sentiments, anti-US feelings. ______ regimes
Who held most of the power in totalitarian Japan? Japanese ________
strategy of an all-out fast assault. Means "lightening war"
armored columns, used by German forces
German air force
organized group of German submarines that attacked ships
suicide planes that were started by the Japanese when they realized they were going to be defeated by the US
secret code used by German army during war
Japanese Admiral planned to take Midway. Admiral in Battle of Coral Sea
November 1939 - War in WWII - used cross country skiing to get involved and intimidate Russians, treaty in March, help - who is they??
Battle of Leyte Gulf
biggest naval battle in history (replacing Jutland), America finished off Japanese, mostly because they had the biggest planes, American gained the Philippines back
Treaty. Churchill and Stalin. Churchill and Roosevelt are going to recognize that Eastern Europe is under the Soviets, discuss how Europe will look after the war, Plans for the United Nations, US asks USSR for assistance in the planned invasion of Japan.
became president of the US after Roosevelt died. Made the Truman Doctrine
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NATO, alliance - these powers against communism and promised to protect each other if war breaks out
Speech given by Churchill about the tensions between socialist and capitalists
$400 million to help free people against aggressive movements that seek to impose totalitarian regimes; US would provide $ to countries threatened by Communism
European Recovery Plan; strengthen economies so they don't become communist, $13 billion was offered
Alliance between USSR and other countries. Promised to protect each other if attacked. Used to counter NATO
Bay of Pigs
JFK supported Cuban ex-patriots trying to invade and overthrow Castro. Castro well aware of event
Cuban Missile Crisis
Crisis in which Cuba would be armed with missiles supplied by Russia and thus could shoot missiles anywhere in the US. Crisis was barely avoided.
Soviet. He and Nixon debated in front of the model kitchen
President of US during Cold War, supported Bay of Pigs, announced goal of sending American safely to the moon before end of decade, blocked USSR ships with nukes being sent to Cuba
Doctrine that warns countries not to steer away from Marxist-Leninism, enunciated by Leonid Brezhnev, stating that the Soviet Union had a right to intervene if socialism was threatened
replaces Nikita, signs SALT interim agreement with Nixon - prevention of nuclear war with US
Real name Josip Broz - leader of Communist resistance movement in Yugoslavia. Established independent Communist state after Cold War.
Last Czar of Soviet Union. Makes major reforms - tried to fix internal weaknesses
"restructuring" economic reform," ownership of land, wanted to fix internal weaknesses
political openness, freedom of speech, press, travel, creates first working legislature, free elections, lets all political prisoners free
policy Americans used to try and "___" communism where it already existed, limit Soviet expansion
elected president of Poland, won nobel peace prize
The Non-Communist Polish Trade Union Political Party, won national legislative elections
Which "proxy war" represented the globalization of the Cold War?
US fears about the spread of communism were increased when what became a communist nation in 1949
Yuri A. Gagarin
Soviet who became the first man to orbit the earth
Indian National Congress Party
Party who attempted to build a mass base towards independence of Hindus (majority) Campaigns to protect Cows.
Indian leader, pressed for restoration of traditional Hindu practices, wanted to be independent from British influences
Egyptian political party, pushed for nationalist-geared reform, liberal democracy
prosperous new Egyptian middle class
conviction that there was a distinctive "African Personality", provided common sense of destin for all black africans
Incident where British soldier accidentally shot wife of prayer leader while pigeon hunting - led to big fight
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
former congress party member that lead the Muslim League. First Governor-General of Pakistan
ending of British empire in India, separating Pakistan and India
British act imposed on India that allowed British, without trial, to imprison anyone accused of terrorism
leader of Ghana, first prime minister
First prime minister and leader of Kenya
group of muslims that broke off from the Indian National COngress because they were worried that the Hindus would have complete control - called from separate Muslim state
Land Freedom Army
formed by Kenya African Union, army which helped them start terror campaign
prime minister in India after partition, took over indian movement for independence from Ghandi
person who supported the international movement that called for the establishment of a Jewish state in palestine
system of racial segregation practiced in the Republic of South Africa
established zionist movement
social category, opposite of majority
treatment of consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person or thing based on the group, class, or category to which they belong to
new word for genocide