Christian merchant from Italy. Traveled on the Silk Road. Visited many Asian countries, most known being China. Especially fond of city, Hangzhou
tribes outside of China that invaded. Chinese considered them inferior and uneducated. "uncivilized people" north of China. Mostly nomadic pastoral societies, usually lived in tribes, small kinship based groups. Lack of organized and agricultural government. Included: Uighurs, Khitan, Jurchen.
Turkish people. Asked to repress the rebellion during the decline of the Tang Dynasty. Demanded the right to sack the two capitals of the dynasty in exchange for repressing the rebellion. Took a great cost on the Tang Dynasty, even though they were successful
A Sui emperor. Built numerous Buddhist monasteries in China pressing the importance of Buddhism in Chinese culture. Lead to the wealth and power that Buddhism had by exempting their large estates from taxes and using it to justify military battles.
Second emperor and co-founder of Tang Dynasty. Centralized government by adding a separate bureaucracy, administering the Imperial Household. Through his military campaigns he made Tang Dynasty the largest it would be. Able to take over Korea and Vietnam. Extended empire by Silk Road into Central Asia and steppe land.
Only woman in Chinese history to rule as empress. Empress of Tang Dynasty, due to Buddhism, since women had more freedom then in previous dynasties. Found the best people she could to run the government and treated trustworthy fairly. Reduced army's size and stopped influence of aristocratic families and stopped the influence of aristocratic military men on government by replacing them with scholars. Exams were created. Lowered oppressive taxes, raised agricultural production, strengthened public works. Favored Buddhism
emperor of Tang dynasty. People loved him. Created age of prosperity and cultural dynamism. Economy flourished and international trade grew more extensive. Chang'an became an entry port for merchants and travelers from the Mediterranean to Indian Ocean. Buddhist monasteries became centers of art and philosophy, growing in wealth. Age of great poetry Fell in love with concubine Yan Guifei and caused the fall of Tang Dynasty and she accumulated power and led rebellion against him
"Barbarians". Northern steppe Nomads. Encompassed (created states in) parts of China after Han collapse and again after Tang collapse. Gained so much power ordered Southern Song Dynasty to pay them tribute. One of the groups immersed themselves farthest in becoming Chinese
Part of Vietnamese resistance. Started rebellion against Chinese occupation in Vietnam. The rebellion was crushed and these instigators committed suicide. Vietnamese national symbol of independence and pride.
Prominent Japanese aristocrat. Transformed Japan into more of a bureaucratic state. Sent Japanese intellectuals to China to learn and made them spread Chinese culture upon their return. Wrote the Seventeenth Article Constitution in 604, which defined the ideal Japanese states. Talked about peasants and higher ranking officers duties
Buddhist monk that wrote in Articles on Zen Buddhism. One of the monks that introduced Zen to Japan. Believed enlightment was to be obtained by focusing inward rather than looking to a deity for help. Also felt the decline of Buddhism was due to low discipline both by the monks and priests
1293-1354. Wrote the Chronicle of the Direct Descent of Gods and Sovereigns in 1339. Talked about Buddhism in Japan and how they've "existed since the creation of time.: It talked about the Great Sun Goddess being their only god.
966-1017. Wrote the Pillow Book. The Pillow Book was filled with witty comments about typical positions in a class that were expected to be played by certain people. She stressed that women should have rights of their own and do what men dan do as well (such as talk with guests instead of hiding behind a curtain/their fans).
1349-1410. Feudal lord, general, administrator, and poet. Wrote a guide of advice for young samurai.
1325-1420. Famous for being a poet, military commander and devout Buddhist. He wrote a letter to his adopted son (also his younger brother) criticizing his mismanagement of his territory and lack of army maintenance and disregard of Buddhist monks and priests.
Dynasty that followed Han Dynasty. Tried reunifying China through combination of military and civil methods. Civil service exams were reinstated. Important military conquest. Composed legal code and started a well field system. Gov't established public grainaries and system of agricultural colonies, grew crops and colonists defended frontier.
well field system
system that redistributed land to citizens
Dynasty that produced crops which became a staple and were used to pay taxes. Linked Northern and Southern China economically and were economically prosperous. Built Grand Canal.
Dynasty in which Chang'an and Xian were the capitals
Dyansty founded by Li Yuan and Li Shimin. Martial arts was popular. Li Shimin centralizes government and adds separate bureaucracy, kept the Imperial Household in check. Took over Vietnam and Korea. Confucian ideals. Had fortress at end of Great Wall, Jiyugaun. Had empress Wu Zetian. Xuanzong brought it to its greatest prosperity
fortress at the end of the Great Wall, a military stronghold. During the Tang Dynasty
Dynasty where foreign trade, especially of luxury goods was promoted. Agriculture improved due to use of iron plow, irrigation improvements such as the water whee, dams, pumps, and high-yield rice from Vietnam. Paper money stimulated trade and caused inflation. Economic and demographic growth quick and large population boom. Peace and security yielded more farming
Dynasty in which capital was Hangzhou.
Dynasty established by Zhao brothers. Made new exam system: civil service exam reformed and made local and national exam. Confucianism reinstated and related to state. Exams mainstream of gov't recruitment. Literate men dominated political culture and would be good at cultural aspects, no military aspects. Had navel technology. Population reached 100 million. Civil Service exam open to all. Never strong in military. Mongols conquered.
Dynasty where rice replaces wheat as main crop. Sugar and cotton become important and farmers make good fertilizer. Terrace farming popular. Green sprout program invented. Officials charged huge revenue to this program causing poor families to loose money and wealthy moneylenders and big landlords appeared. Trade flourished w/ Central Asia and India and internally
Green Sprout Program
invented during the Song Dynasty. increased yield of production per person. Issued by the government and focused on agricultural output. program to loan grain to cultivators at no interest in order to allow peasants to escape he cycle that kept them in debt to the rich.
Dynasty in which tea, porcelain, and silk are main exports. Class of merchants reappears with a stigma. Porcelain was made lighter and thinner for larger export quantities. Production of iron and steel surged. Many new inventions
Tibet, Korea, Japan, Vietnam
Chinese neighbors that were pulled into its many dynamics
In the Sui Dynasty, unity was solidified by the extension of what system?
Tang Dynasty, Song Dynasty
Which two Dynasties were built on the foundations of the Sui Dynasty?
Tang Dynasty, Song Dynasty
During which dynasties was there a "golden age" especially known for its excellence in poetry?
a revival of Confucian thinking, later incorporated into Buddhism and Daoism
an agency that exercised surveillance over the reast of the government
During which dynasty was there a large population increase?
During which dynasty were the innovations of printing, navigation and ship-building, and gunpowder emerging?
During which dynasty was the reviving Confucianism values especially hard on the lives of women?
During which dynasty were women's lives less restricted due to the steppe nomads' influence.
What practice increased patriarchy as well as created a new image of female beauty and eroticism, practiced by the upper classes mainly?
With whom did the Chinese have the most consistent interaction?
What structure was meant to stop pastoralists from easily trading with China?
To whom did Chinese see themselves superior?
set of practices. A practical system for managing China's relationships. Based off the exchange of goods.
A largely nomadic confederacy that raided Northern China. Chinese emperor was forced to regard this group as equals and supply them with grain, wine, and silk in return for the termination of their invasions.
bestowing gifts on Barbarians
The term used to help China feel they were still in control when they were involved in tolling exchange with nomads in return for protection
Nomadic group that most heavily immersed themselves in Chinese culture
Sui Dynasty, Tang Dynasty
In which dynasties were the founders of mixed cultures: Chinese and Nomadic?
Korea, Vietnam, Japan
Which agricultural, sedentary areas were involved in tributary relations with China?
Name given to Korean rulers. Chinese word for "king".
Contained dynasties: Silla, Koryo, and Yi
New capital city of Korea, modeled after the Chinese capital, Chang'an
Area taken over by China in which Confucian values had a great number of negative impacts on women
Vietnamese rice. Used in China. Drought-resistant
Area conquered by China that used Chinese-style irrigated agriculture.
Which dynasty weakened during Vietnamese resistance?
southern Vietnamese script, a variation of Chinese writing.
Class of Japanese warriors
way of warrior(samurai). requires skill in martial arts, bravery, loyalty, endurance, honor, preference for death over surrender.
sacred spirits associated with human ancestors and natural phenomena. Japanese.
another word for kami
Japanese poetic form
time of esthetic culture in Imperial Court of China
______ technology included: salt from solar evaporation, papermaking, gunpowder formula
Prosperity during which dynasty stimulated commercial life and market-based behavior in Eurasia?
First printed book. A Buddhist text.
Coastal city in Southern China
Which religion emphasized individual salvation or enlightenment?
During which dynasty was Confucianism discredited because chaos after its collapse?
Chinese term for the Buddhist term dharma. Means "the way". associated with Confucianism and Daoism
Buddha's teaching. In China was translated to the term "Dao"
filial submission and obedience
the Confucian term that the Chinese referred Buddhist "morality" to
Form of Buddhism in China that had numerous deities, veneration of relics, heavens, hells, and bodhisativas
aid believers. part of the Mahayana form of Buddhism
Most popular form of Buddhism in China. Sufficient to ensure rebirth in heavenly realm. Emphasis on salvation by faith without intense study or meditation
China's reunification was mainly brought about by growing support for _________
term for despise/fear of foreigners
Rebellion in which a general of a foreign origin lead a major revolt on the Tang Dynasty
First emperor of the Yam-a-toh emperor and claimed to be a descendant from a sun goddess
Religion of Japan that focuses on kami-spirits. Kami are worshipped by all classes. Has fertility gods
Form of Buddhism in Japan. Did not look on external divine force. Had highly disciplined meditation, zazen. Valued teachings transitioning from master to disciple
strict form of meditation. Part of Zen Buddhism
Largest dynasty in China
In absence of an imperial force, law and order broke down and local forces took over in which country?
Who had all the power in a Chinese family?
Which Chinese dynasty constructed the Grand Canal?
Which form of Buddhism was popular in Japan?
Who was the prince to send the first envoys to China to learn about political institutions used in the Tang Dynasty?
Where did both the Tang and Song dynasties have their capital?
Who founded the Tang Dynasty?
During which dynasty were ceramic figurines most prominent?
What was the main crop in Song China and Japan
Who wrote the Pillow Book?
Where were the Trung Sisters from?
Foot-binding is a reflection of which belief system?
The Khitan were responsible for the decline of what dynasty?
Which nomadic group ultimately brought down the Song dynasty?
Which dynasty brought political unity to Korea