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Phases of Meiosis

Interphase, prophase 1, metaphase 1, anaphase 1, telophase 1, prophase 2, metaphase 2, anaphase 2, telophase 2.

Products of Meiosis

4 haploid gametes genetically unique to each other and parent cells

Sexual vs Asexual cell division

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Gamete

a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes

Chromatin

the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins

Cell Cycle

series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide

Homologous pair

a pair of chromosomes, one from each parent, that have relatively similar structures and gene values

Diploid vs Haploid

1 set of chromosomes vs. 2 sets of chromosomes

Zygote

the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell)

Crossing over

the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis

Cross-fertilization

process by which sperm from one flower's pollen fertilizes the eggs in a flower of a different plant

Hybrid

an organism that is the offspring of genetically dissimilar parents or stock

Monohybrid cross

hybridization using a single trait with two alleles (as in Mendel's experiments with garden peas)

Allele

one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits

Homozygous vs Heterozygous

homozygous is a individual that has identical alleles for a trait on both homologous chomosomes (181) Heterozygous is an individual who has th\wo different alleles for a trait (181)

Co-dominance

situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism

Punnett Square (example)

a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross

DNA

(biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix

4 Nucleotides

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Pyrimidine vs Purine

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Steps of Protein synthesis

DNA strand unwinds and separates, one strand directs synthesis of mRNA, RNA polymerase binds to promoter sequence, nucleotides are added

Interon vs Exon

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Gregor Mendel

(father of genetics) Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics (1822-1884)

Charles Darwin

English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution. (p. 715)

Carolus Linnaeus

Swedish botanist who developed the first successful system for classifying living things into similar groups, a system that is still in use today.

Descent with Modification

principle that each living species has descended, with changes, from other species over time

Natural Selection

process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest

Artificial Selection

selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to produce offspring with desired genetic traits

Gene pool

combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population

Genetic Drift

the gradual changes in gene frequencies in a population due to random events

Define Species

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Macroevolution

evolution on a large scale extending over geologic era and resulting in the formation of new taxonomic groups

Microevolution

evolution resulting from small specific genetic changes that can lead to a new subspecies

5 Types of reproductive barriers

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Vestigial Structure

remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species

Population

a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area

Gene flow

movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population

Adaptive Radiation

process by which a single species or small group of species evolves into several different forms that live in different ways; rapid growth in the diversity of a group of organisms

Punctuated equilibrium

a theory of evolution holding that evolutionary change in the fossil record came in fits and starts rather than in a steady process of slow change

Convergent Evolution

process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments

Stabilizing Selection

form of natural selection by which the center of the curve remains in its current position; occurs when individuals near the center of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end

Disruptive Selection

form of natural selection in which a single curve splits into two; occurs when individuals at the upper and lower ends of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle

Directional Selection

form of natural selection in which the entire curve moves; occurs when individuals at one end of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end of the curve

Bottleneck Effect

Genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, typically by a natural disaster, such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population.

Taxonomy

practice of classifying plants and animals according to their presumed natural relationships

Binomial nomenclature

Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name

Phylogenic tree

A chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by phylogenic systematics. It contains a time component and implies ancestor-descendant relationships.

Analogous structure

structures that are not the same in form but are used for the same purpose ex: bird wing and fly wing

Cladogram

a tree diagram used to illustrate phylogenetic relationships

Dichotomous key

a key for the identification of organisms based on a series of choices between alternative characters

5 levels of ecological study

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6 Abiotic factors in Energy

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Ecology

scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment

Habitat

the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs

Exponential Growth

growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate

Limiting Factor

any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms.

Carrying capacity

largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support

Density-Dependent vs Density- Independent

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Parasitism

the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)

Mutualism

the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent

Commensalism

the relation between two different kinds of organisms when one receives benefits from the other without damaging it

Primary vs Secondary succession

Primary succession is the development of a community from an essentially abiotic setting following a cataclusmic disturbance while secondary is development of a community after a habitat has been disturbed, but not so severely as to destroy all life.

Carbon Cycle

the movement of carbon from the nonliving environment into living things and back

Water Cycle

The continuous movement of water from the ocean to the atmosphere to the land and back to the ocean

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