FINAL VOCAB (2nd Semester) Morgan/Hollarah

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Jihad

holy war

oasis

a spot of fertile land in a desert, fed by water from wells or underground springs

Drip irrigation

the practice of using small pipes that slowly drip water just above ground to conserve water to use for crops

desalinization

the removal of salt from ocean water used to make the water drinkable

West Bank

A strip of land on the West side of Jordan for Arab Palestine

Imperialism

expanding a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military influence

export

a product or good sold from one country to another

Palestinians

a displaced group of Arabs who lived or still live in what was formerly Palestine (israel)

silt

loose sedimentary material containing small rock, formed by rivers

Islam

a monotheistic religion based on the teachings of the prophet Muhammed

Crude Oil

Dark oil consisting of hydrocarbons

theocracy

a system of government in which priests rule in the name of god

Mesopotamia

ancient region in Iraq, between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Very fertile soils

Golan Heights

A hilly plateau over looking the Jordan river

Mecca

holiest city of islam for Muslims, located in Saudi Arabia

Import

goods that a country buys from another country

guest workers

a person with temporary permission to work in another country

Sahel

semi-arid region in North Africa below the Sahara Desert.

Stateless Society

a society not governed by a state

Judaism

a monotheistic religion of the Jews that follows the Torah

Refinery

an industrial installation where a substance is refined

stateless nation

a group considered as a nation, entitled to its own state

Gaza Strip

territory along the Mediterranean sea, north east of the Siani Peninsula

Totalitarian Government

a system in which government control extends to almost all aspects of people's lives

monotheism

worshipping and believing in only one god

Taliban

a repressive islamic militia that took over Afghanistan and set up islamic government

Aswan High Dam

one of the world's largest dams, located on the Nile river

Sahara Desert

Worlds largest Desert located in north africa

Christianity

a monotheistic religion that prays to Jesus Christ

OPEC

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. agree on the policy and sales of oil

PLO

Palestinian liberation organization. a political movement in an effort to make and independent palestine

strategic commodity

a resource so important that a country will go to war over it

Wadi

Dry river-beds that fill up when it rains

Patriarchy

a form of social government in which a male is the head of the family

Euphrates River

a river in Iraq that joins with the Tigris

Carthage

Ancient city state in Modern Tunis that was founded by the Phoenicians

Berlin Conference

Regulated European colonization and trade in africa

One Commodity Country

A country that exports only one main important export

Zionism

Policy for establishing a homeland for Jews

Kurds

an ethnic-Iranian group in SW Asia

Crusades

a series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Westrn European Christians to reclain control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims

Salt Flat

flat expanse of salt left by the evaporation of a body of salt water

dictatorship

form of government in which the ruler is a dictator

Arabic

Semitic language of the Arabs

Tigris River

A river in Iraq, tributary to the Euphrates river

Epidemic

widespread outbreak of an infectious disease

petroleum

an oily, dark-colored, flammable liquid found in the earth, consisting mainly of a mixture of various hydrocarbons.

subcontinent

landmass like a continent only smaller

alluvial plain

land that is rich farmland, located by running water. made of clay, sand or silt

archipelago

a set of closely grouped islands

atoll

a ringlike coral island surrounded by a lagoon

monsoon

seasonal wind in South Asia

Cyclone

a violent storm with fierce winds and heavy rain. also known as a typhoon

Hinduism

the dominant religion in India

Storm Surge

high water level brought on by a hurricane or cyclone in low lying areas

Ganges River

a river in South asia that is an important source of water. flows from a himalayan glacier to the bay of bengal

Estuary

a broadened seaward end of a river where the river meets ocean tides

Mughal Empire

a muslim empire in the 1500's with new customs that often clashed with the Hindu's

nonviolent resistance

a protest movement that doesnt use violence to achieve goals

land reform

more balanced land distribution between farmers

Green Revolution

an agricultural program to help develop higher yielding grain varieties

caste system

aryan system of social classes

Indus Valley Civilization

largest of the worlds first civilizations located in what is today Pakistan

partition

division or separation of territories

Kashmir

region of Northern India and Pakistan that many wars have been fought over

Microcredit

makes small loans available to poor sales men

entrepreneur

a sales person

Ramadan

month long period of fasting in the Islamic religion

constitutional monarchy

Kingdoms in which the rulers powers are limited by a constitution

Sherpa

a person of Nepal who is a mountain guide

Siddhartha Guatama

the founder of Buddhism

Mandala

geometric designs and symbols of meditation

Sinhalese

Indo-Aryan people who crossed the strait between India and Sri-Lanka

Tamils

Dravidian Hindu's who arrived in Sri Lanka and lived in the 4th century

sultan

ruler of a muslim country

basic necessities

things you need to survive (shelter, food, etc.)

illiteracy

inability to read or write

summer monsoon

when seasonal winds blow from the indian ocean toward south asia and bring rain

winter monsoon

dry winds that blow across the himalayas

Three Gorges Dam

a dam built in the 20th century on the Chang Jiang to control flooding and generate power

Dynasty

a series of rulers from the same family

Mao Zedong

Leader of the communists in China who defeated the nationalists in 1949

Confucianism

movement based on the teachings of confucius. spread education and respecting elders

Taoism

philosophy based on the teachings of the Tao Te Ching. based on harmony and nature

Buddhism

religion that originated in India in 500BC. Worship the Buddah

Samurai

professional japanese soldier who protects the rights of landowners and clan chiefs

Shogun

the general of the emperors army. Powers of a military dictator

Tsunami

giant ocean wave caused by an earthquake or volcanic eruption

Ring of Fire

Chain of volcanoes in the pacific rim

UNICEF

united nations childrens fund, an international relief organization for children

Sweat shop

work place where people work in bad conditions for low pay.

Indochina

French colony comprised of Cambodia, Laos and Vietname. Won independence in 1954

Vietnam War

the military conflict as a result of the american involvement in South Vietnam's effort to prevent communist takeover by north vietnam

Boxer Rebellion

an uprising in china in 1900 spurred by angry chinese militants

Great Kanto Earthquake

an earthquake in Japan in 1923 that left tokyo in ruins

Global Economy

merging of regional economies in which nations become dependent on each other for goods and services

Jakota triangle

zone of prosperity in the 1980's and early 1990's in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan

Recession

extended period of decline in the economy

peninsula

a piece of land surrounded by water on 3 sides

Three Kingdoms

The kingdoms formed in Korea

Economic Tiger

a country with rapid economic growth due to cheap labor, high technology, and agressive exports

Pacific Rim

economic and social region including countries surrounding the pacific

PCB's

industrial compound that accumulates animal tissue and is toxic

Landfill

method of solid waste disposal in which trash is buried in low ground

Spheres of Influence

method of dividing foreign control in China after the country was forced to sign treaties granting european privileges

Mandala

state organized as a ring of power around a central court used instead of borders

Khmer Empire

powerful empire that was in present day cambodia and lasted from the 9th to the 15th century

Micronesia

one of 3 regions in Oceania meaning "tiny island"

Melanesia

Region of Oceania meaning "Black Islands:

ASEAN

association of southeast asian nations. an alliance that promotes economic growth and peace in the region

Polynesia

region in Oceania meaning "many islands"

Subsistence activities

an activity in which a family produces only enough food, clothing etc. that they need

Copra

dried meat of coconuts

Taro

tropical asian plant with broad leaves and a starchy root, used in breads, puddings and poi

Oceania

group of islands in the pacific including melanesia, polynesia, and Micronesia

high islands

pacific islands created by volcanoes

low islands

pacific islands created by coral reefs

Great Barrier Reef

1,250 mile long chain of coral reefs and islands along the Australian coast

Outback

dry unpopulated area of Australia

Penal Colony

place to send prisoners

Aboriginal people

people who migrated to australia from asia at least 40,000 years ago

Maori

first settlers of New Zealand who migrated from polynesia over 1,000 years ago

Treaty of Waitangi

treaty signed by the british and Maori in 1840 giving britain control over New Zealand

Baltic Republics

Region located on the Eastern Baltic Sea: Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia

Berlin Wall

a wall erected by east germany in 1961 to split the capital of berlin

Caucasus

a region that straddles the Caucasus mountains and stretches between the black and caspian seas

Central Asia

region that includes the republics of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan

Chechnya

one of the republics that remains a part of Russia after the collapse of the soviet union

Chernobyl

a nuclear accident in 1986 that killed a lot of people and cause lasting health problems for the area

Collective Farm

an enormous farm in the soviet union in which large teams of workers ran the farm

Cold War

the conflict between the soviet union and the United States after WW11

Command Economy

a type of economic system in which goods and services are determined by a central government

Continentality

a regions distance from the moderating influence of the sea

Czar

the emperor of Russia prior to the russian revolution

Eurasia

The "single continent" of europe and asia

Great Game

The struggle between Great Britian and Russia to control Central Asia

Market Economy

a type of economic system in which, economic system in which decisions on production and consumption of goods and services are based on voluntary exchange in markets (consumers)

Nagorno-Karabkh

the mountainous area of Azerbaijan

Privatization

selling of government owned companies to private citizens

Red Army

the name of the soviet military

Runoff

rainfall not absorbed by soil. can carry pesticides

Russian Revolution

The revolution that overthrew Russian Czar Nicholas I in 1917. Later established the Bolshevik government under Vladimir Lenin.

Siberia

a vast Asian region of Russia

Silk Road

an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles)

Soviet Union

A Communist nation, consisting of Russia and 14 other states, that existed from 1922 to 1991.

Supra

a russian dinner party

Taiga

nearly continuous belt of evergreen coniferous forests across the northern hemisphere

Transcaucasia

A region consisting of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia

Trans- Siberian Railroad

railroad that runs from Moscow to Vladivosto on the East coast and is the longest single rail line in the world

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