a large and distinctive landmass (as India or Greenland) that is a distinct part of some continent (sometimes considered a continent)
a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme beingof many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a
Located in India, this river is considered sacred to Hindus and is used for spiritual cleansing, funeral rites, and other Hindu rituals.
Indus Valley civilization
an ancient civilization that flourished in the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra river valleys primarily in what is now Pakistan and western India
separation; division into two or more territorial units having separate political status (happened in India)
A region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent; India and Pakistan dispute control of it.
small loan avaliable to poor entrepreneurs, to help businesses grow and raise living standards.
an islamic fast (held from sunrise to sunset) that is carried out during the Islamic month of _______
A King or Queen is the official head of state but their power is limited by a constitution.
a member of the people originally from Tibet who live on the high southern slopes of the Himalayas in eastern Nepal
founder of Buddism; born a prince; left his father's wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha
A religious symbol associated with meditation, usually created with geometric patterns and shapes
The _______ are the main ethnic group of Sri Lanka. They speak Sinhala, an Indo-European language;Most of the _______ (93%) are Buddhists
dravidian hindus who arrived in sri lanka in the fourth century, settling in north while the sinhalese moved further south
Why is the Ganges river important and what problems does it face?
1. Its thought of as the "Mother River"
2. There are rituals held there
3. It is densely populated near its banks
4. It is very polluted and unsanitary
5. People won't clean it because they believe that "sacred must be protected" and that if it needed to be cleaned, it would have been
What is the Feni River and why was a dam built on it?
1. It is a river in Bangladesh which means it is at a low elevation
2. It is near the ocean
3. It was flooding so they had to build a dam
4. They used their large population and built a secure dam at low tide
How does the Caste system affect the lives of Indians?
1. People are born into classes
2. Their path is pre-determined
3. It forces a sense of duty to do well in this life so that you can move up in your next one
How is Buddhism more like a philosophy rather than a religion?
1. It sets guidelines as opposed to a deity (higher power)
2. It states that life is suffering; to get rid of suffering is to end desire
a fortified hilly area between southern Lebanon and southern Syria. also called Al-Jawlan
gullies or streams in northern Africa and the Middle East that remains dry except during rainy season
one of the most important rivers in Southwest Asia; it supported several ancient river valley civilizations
a river of Southwest Asia, which supported several ancient civilizations and flows threw parts of Turkey, Syria, and Iraq and empties into the Persian Gulf
a river that serves as a natural boundary between israel and jordan, flowing form the mountains of Lebanon into the dead sea.
a landlocked salt lake between Israel and Jordan that is so salty that almost nothing can live in its waters; it is 1,349 feet below sea level, making it the lowest place on the exposed crust of the earth
large, sandy desert also named the Empty Quarter. it is located in the southeastern part of Saudi Arabia, but north of Oman
a proccess by which pipes placed near plant roots drip only as much water as the plants need.
the removal of salt (especially from sea water), this water is still too salty for farms or drinking. so it is used for sewage
The National Water Carrier project
carries water from northern Israel to the center and southern Isreal
an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
a form of government where religious leaders control the government, relying on religious law and consultation with religious scholars
for Jews, the holiest site in Jerusalem; the only remaining portion of the Second Temple, built in 538 B.C. and destroyed in A.D. 70 by the Romans
Dome of the Rock
Muslim shrine containing the rock from which Mohammad is believed to have risen to heaven; Jews believe Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac on the rock
Palestine Liberation Organization
a political movement uniting Palestinian Arabs in an effort to create an independent state of Palestine
Ethnic group that lives in parts of Iraq and Turkey. They often suffer persecution in both countries, and are currently under the protection of the United Nations in Iraq.
first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers;" Sumerian culture
a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad, a follower of the majority branch of Islam, which feels that successors to Muhammad are to be chosen by the Muslim community
a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs, The branch of Islam that holds that the leader of Islam must be a descendant of Muhammad's family.
a fundamentalist Islamic militia, a group of fundamentalist Muslims who took control of Afghanistan's government in 1996
the highest peak in Africa; located in northeastern Tanzania; 19,340 feet high. (it is a volcano)
in the northern Tanzani. dry climate and hard soil prevent the growth of trees but perfect for growing grass.( a great place for watching animals)
a volcanic group of inactive volcanoes with one potentially active volcano in the central Sahara desert in Northern Chad
Slash and Burn
a method of clearing farm land that endangers animals, read about it in previous chapters
a gorge in northeastern Tanzania where anthropologists have found some of the earliest human remains
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa.
a readily salable crop that is grown and gathered for the market (as vegetables or cotton or tobacco)
major ethnic group in East Africa. They live on the grasslands of rift valleys (Kenya, Tanzania). They herd livestock and farm
an island off the coast of Senegal that served as a major departure point for slaves during the slave trade
A society that is based on the authority of kinship groups rather than on a central government
people who live in what is now called Ghana, in west africa, and who are known fro their artful weaving and colorful asasia, or kente cloth.
a kind of Algerian music developed in the 1920s by poor urban children that is fast paced with danceable rhythms
farmers and herders who migrated south and spread language and skils which lasted thousands of years
King Leopold II
King of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908). (p. 732) (he also created the Berlin conference to split up Africa Among the European colonies
Mobutu Sese Seko
He overthrew Lumumba, the leader of the Congo, and turned him over to his enemy. He renamed the country Zaire, and ruled for 32 years. He used a combination of force, one party rule, and gifts to supporters to run his country. (the Democratic Republic of the Congo's leader from 1967-1997. He brought the country's businesses under national control. Used the army to stay in control)
long wooden masks painted white with facial features in black. and carved boxes containing the skulls and bones of deceased ancestors, created by the Fan, who live in Gabon, southern Cameroon, and Equatorial Guinea
a city established in what is now Zimbabwe by the Shona around 1000 A.D.; it became the capital of a thriving gold-trading area
a state founded in the 15th century by a man named Mutota and that extended throughout all of present-day Zimbabwe except the Eastern part. It had an economy based on gold trade
a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites (the former official party of South Africa)
South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation's first democratically elected president in 1994 (born in 1918)
controlled by portuguese, had perfect soil for growing sugar, producted much in demand in europe, used african american slaves to harvest sugar establishing the first modern colony dependant on slave labor
AIDS in south Africa
a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles which 11.6% of the population in South Africa has (5.7 million people)
trade in west Africa
slaves and was in the middle of the salt gold trade from north and south Africa
trade in east Africa
the east African's did not have much to trade but they were the middle men for south west Asia and Europe
an economic system in which the government has little interference; products are made largely based on comsumer demand; the U.S. uses this economic style
economic and political system in which the government controls the economy by owning its farms, land, and businesses. One party system
political tension between the U.S. and the USSR from 1945-1991; a struggle for world economic and political power; no real fighting occurred
the imaginary barrier that isolated the Russian people from the rest of the world under the communist Soviet Union
dictator of the USSR for about 25 years including through WWII; ruled with an Iron Fist and killed/exiled any who disagreed with him
last Communist leader of the USSR; started giving the people more economic and political freedom
severely cold far northern climate type of Russia; only small shrubs, mosses, and lichens are able to grow there
permanently frozen soil found largely in Siberia; can reach depths of up to 1,500 ft.; makes extracting natural resources difficult
a mountain range in western Russia extending from the arctic to the Caspian Sea; forms part of the traditional boundary between Europe and Asia
a region consisting of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan
the largest forest on earth. It primarily has coniferous trees and has many fur bearing animals such as: sable, fox, and ermine
huge government created farms that employed large numbers of workers; all crops are distributed by the government
Huge Georgian dinner party. Means "Tablecloth", and there is a lot of food.there can also be short speeches and toasts
a "country" that wants independence from Russia but have been repeatedly denied it. They have turned to terrorism as a way to get freedom
a region consisting of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan
one of the biggest man-made naturals disasters in human history. The amu-dyra and syru-dayra (rivers that feed it) were diverted to water cotton and has caused the Aral sea to lose more than 80% of its water
Area in that is being fought over by Azerbaijan and Armenia. Located in Azerbaijan, but 3/4 of population is Armenian and all of the population is Christian.
the rich black topsoil found in the North European Plain, especially in Russia and Ukraine