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Quizlet Flash cards for HW 7Th. grade geography final

Himalaya Mountains

a mountain range extending 1500 miles on the border between India and Tibet

subcontinent

a large and distinctive landmass (as India or Greenland) that is a distinct part of some continent (sometimes considered a continent)

alluvial plain

area that is built up by rich fertile soil left by river floods

archipelago

a group of many islands in a large body of water

atoll

an island consisting of a circular coral reef surrounding a lagoon

monsoon

rainy season in southern Asia when the southwestern _____ blows, bringing heavy rains

cyclone

a violent rotating windstorm

Hinduism

a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme beingof many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a

Ganges River

Located in India, this river is considered sacred to Hindus and is used for spiritual cleansing, funeral rites, and other Hindu rituals.

storm surge

a "dome" of water that sweeps across the coast where a hurricane lands

estuary

the large area where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean

Indus Valley civilization

an ancient civilization that flourished in the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra river valleys primarily in what is now Pakistan and western India

partition

separation; division into two or more territorial units having separate political status (happened in India)

Kashmir

A region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent; India and Pakistan dispute control of it.

microcredit

small loan avaliable to poor entrepreneurs, to help businesses grow and raise living standards.

entrepreneur

someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it

Ramadan

an islamic fast (held from sunrise to sunset) that is carried out during the Islamic month of _______

constitutional monarchy

A King or Queen is the official head of state but their power is limited by a constitution.

Sherpa

a member of the people originally from Tibet who live on the high southern slopes of the Himalayas in eastern Nepal

Siddhartha Gautama

founder of Buddism; born a prince; left his father's wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha

mandala

A religious symbol associated with meditation, usually created with geometric patterns and shapes

Sinhalese

The _______ are the main ethnic group of Sri Lanka. They speak Sinhala, an Indo-European language;Most of the _______ (93%) are Buddhists

Tamils

dravidian hindus who arrived in sri lanka in the fourth century, settling in north while the sinhalese moved further south

Sultan

the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire)

Why is the Ganges river important and what problems does it face?

1. Its thought of as the "Mother River"
2. There are rituals held there
3. It is densely populated near its banks
4. It is very polluted and unsanitary
5. People won't clean it because they believe that "sacred must be protected" and that if it needed to be cleaned, it would have been

What is the Feni River and why was a dam built on it?

1. It is a river in Bangladesh which means it is at a low elevation
2. It is near the ocean
3. It was flooding so they had to build a dam
4. They used their large population and built a secure dam at low tide

How does the Caste system affect the lives of Indians?

1. People are born into classes
2. Their path is pre-determined
3. It forces a sense of duty to do well in this life so that you can move up in your next one

How is Buddhism more like a philosophy rather than a religion?

1. It sets guidelines as opposed to a deity (higher power)
2. It states that life is suffering; to get rid of suffering is to end desire

Golan Heights

a fortified hilly area between southern Lebanon and southern Syria. also called Al-Jawlan

wadis

gullies or streams in northern Africa and the Middle East that remains dry except during rainy season

Tigris River

one of the most important rivers in Southwest Asia; it supported several ancient river valley civilizations

Euphrates River

a river of Southwest Asia, which supported several ancient civilizations and flows threw parts of Turkey, Syria, and Iraq and empties into the Persian Gulf

Jordan River

a river that serves as a natural boundary between israel and jordan, flowing form the mountains of Lebanon into the dead sea.

Dead Sea

a landlocked salt lake between Israel and Jordan that is so salty that almost nothing can live in its waters; it is 1,349 feet below sea level, making it the lowest place on the exposed crust of the earth

Rub al-Khali

large, sandy desert also named the Empty Quarter. it is located in the southeastern part of Saudi Arabia, but north of Oman

oasis

a fertile tract in a desert (where the water table approaches the surface)

salt flat

a flat expanse of salt left by the evaporation of a body of salt water

drip irrigation

a proccess by which pipes placed near plant roots drip only as much water as the plants need.

desalinization

the removal of salt (especially from sea water), this water is still too salty for farms or drinking. so it is used for sewage

fossil water

water pumped from underground aquifers

crude oil

a dark unprocessed oil consisting mainly of hydrocarbons

refinery

an industrial plant for purifying a crude substance such as oil

water

the resource that south west asia needs the most is

oil

the resource that South West Asia has a lot of

The National Water Carrier project

carries water from northern Israel to the center and southern Isreal

Ancient Methods

methods that are good for providing water to small areas like farms

Modern Methods

irrigation systems and dams are examples of _____ of providing water

automobiles

the invention of ________ made petroleum highly popular

al-Ghawar

contains 1/4 of Saudi Arabia's oil

Persian Gulf War

the largest oil spill ever recorded happened during the ______________

Arabian

the _______________ peninsula is heavily influenced by the religious principles of Islam

Mecca

the holiest city in Islam is

OPEC

an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum

Muhammad

the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)

theocratic

a form of government where religious leaders control the government, relying on religious law and consultation with religious scholars

mosque

(Islam) a Muslim place of worship

Western Wall

for Jews, the holiest site in Jerusalem; the only remaining portion of the Second Temple, built in 538 B.C. and destroyed in A.D. 70 by the Romans

Dome of the Rock

Muslim shrine containing the rock from which Mohammad is believed to have risen to heaven; Jews believe Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac on the rock

Zionism

the desire for a Jewish state

Palestine Liberation Organization

a political movement uniting Palestinian Arabs in an effort to create an independent state of Palestine

Kurds

Ethnic group that lives in parts of Iraq and Turkey. They often suffer persecution in both countries, and are currently under the protection of the United Nations in Iraq.

Mesopotamia

first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers;" Sumerian culture

Sunni

a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad, a follower of the majority branch of Islam, which feels that successors to Muhammad are to be chosen by the Muslim community

Shi'ite

a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs, The branch of Islam that holds that the leader of Islam must be a descendant of Muhammad's family.

Taliban

a fundamentalist Islamic militia, a group of fundamentalist Muslims who took control of Afghanistan's government in 1996

Shrine of the Holy Sepulcher

(christianity) where Jesus died

islam

the monotheistic religion of Muslims

Basin

a natural depression in the surface of the land often with a lake at the bottom of it

Nile River

the world's longest river (4180 miles)

Rift valley

a long, thin, deep valley that forms where two plates move apart

Mount Kilimanjaro

the highest peak in Africa; located in northeastern Tanzania; 19,340 feet high. (it is a volcano)

Escarpment

a long steep slope or cliff at the edge of a plateau or ridge

Sahara

the world's largest desert (3,500,000 square miles) in northern Africa

Aquifer

underground bed or layer yielding ground water for wells and springs etc

Serengeti plain

in the northern Tanzani. dry climate and hard soil prevent the growth of trees but perfect for growing grass.( a great place for watching animals)

Canopy

dense covering formed by the leafy tops of tall rain forest trees

Tibesti mountains

a volcanic group of inactive volcanoes with one potentially active volcano in the central Sahara desert in Northern Chad

Slash and Burn

a method of clearing farm land that endangers animals, read about it in previous chapters

Kalahari

a desert in southwestern Africa (Mostly Botswana)

Namib

A desert in Namibia and southwestern Angola (it means vast in nama)

Olduvai Gorge

a gorge in northeastern Tanzania where anthropologists have found some of the earliest human remains

Aksum

a kingdom along the Red Sea today known as Ethiopia and Eritrea which grew wealthy from trade

Berlin Conference

A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa.

cash crop

a readily salable crop that is grown and gathered for the market (as vegetables or cotton or tobacco)

Masai

major ethnic group in East Africa. They live on the grasslands of rift valleys (Kenya, Tanzania). They herd livestock and farm

Pandemic

an epidemic that is geographically widespread

Goree Island

an island off the coast of Senegal that served as a major departure point for slaves during the slave trade

Stateless society

A society that is based on the authority of kinship groups rather than on a central government

Ashanti

people who live in what is now called Ghana, in west africa, and who are known fro their artful weaving and colorful asasia, or kente cloth.

souks

marketplace in north africa

rai

a kind of Algerian music developed in the 1920s by poor urban children that is fast paced with danceable rhythms

Carthage

an ancient city state on the north African coast near modern Tunis

Islam

the religion of Muslims collectively which governs their civilization and way of life

Bantu Migrations

farmers and herders who migrated south and spread language and skils which lasted thousands of years

King Leopold II

King of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908). (p. 732) (he also created the Berlin conference to split up Africa Among the European colonies

Mobutu Sese Seko

He overthrew Lumumba, the leader of the Congo, and turned him over to his enemy. He renamed the country Zaire, and ruled for 32 years. He used a combination of force, one party rule, and gifts to supporters to run his country. (the Democratic Republic of the Congo's leader from 1967-1997. He brought the country's businesses under national control. Used the army to stay in control)

Fang sculpture

long wooden masks painted white with facial features in black. and carved boxes containing the skulls and bones of deceased ancestors, created by the Fan, who live in Gabon, southern Cameroon, and Equatorial Guinea

Great Zimbabwe

a city established in what is now Zimbabwe by the Shona around 1000 A.D.; it became the capital of a thriving gold-trading area

Mutapa Empire

a state founded in the 15th century by a man named Mutota and that extended throughout all of present-day Zimbabwe except the Eastern part. It had an economy based on gold trade

apartheid

a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites (the former official party of South Africa)

Nelson Mandela

South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation's first democratically elected president in 1994 (born in 1918)

desertification

the gradual transformation of habitable land into desert

Sao Tome

controlled by portuguese, had perfect soil for growing sugar, producted much in demand in europe, used african american slaves to harvest sugar establishing the first modern colony dependant on slave labor

AIDS in south Africa

a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles which 11.6% of the population in South Africa has (5.7 million people)

gold and diamonds

South African trade consisted of:

trade in west Africa

slaves and was in the middle of the salt gold trade from north and south Africa

salt

North African trade consisted of:

trade in central Africa

Resources(lumber, gold, diamonds, etc.)

trade in east Africa

the east African's did not have much to trade but they were the middle men for south west Asia and Europe

Baltic Republics

Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania

Red army

the name of the Soviet's army

Silk Road

an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles)

Continentality

a regions distance from the moderating influence of the sea

Eurasia

the combined continent of Europe and Asia

Transcaucasia

a region that consists of the republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia

Market Economy

an economic system in which the government has little interference; products are made largely based on comsumer demand; the U.S. uses this economic style

Communism

economic and political system in which the government controls the economy by owning its farms, land, and businesses. One party system

Cold War

political tension between the U.S. and the USSR from 1945-1991; a struggle for world economic and political power; no real fighting occurred

Iron Curtain

the imaginary barrier that isolated the Russian people from the rest of the world under the communist Soviet Union

Stalin

dictator of the USSR for about 25 years including through WWII; ruled with an Iron Fist and killed/exiled any who disagreed with him

Gorbachev

last Communist leader of the USSR; started giving the people more economic and political freedom

Chernobyl

place where world's worst nuclear disaster took place in 1986 in the USSR

Dacha

Russian country vacation home

Tundra

severely cold far northern climate type of Russia; only small shrubs, mosses, and lichens are able to grow there

Permafrost

permanently frozen soil found largely in Siberia; can reach depths of up to 1,500 ft.; makes extracting natural resources difficult

Oil

what Russia is the second largest exporter of

Lake Baikal

world's deepest lake; holds 20% of all the world's freshwater

Ural Mountains

a mountain range in western Russia extending from the arctic to the Caspian Sea; forms part of the traditional boundary between Europe and Asia

Central Asia

a region consisting of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan

Siberia

part of Russia that lies on the continent of Asia. It has a subarctic climate

Taiga

the largest forest on earth. It primarily has coniferous trees and has many fur bearing animals such as: sable, fox, and ermine

runoff

water from rainfall that is not absorbed into the soil and runs into streams and rivers

czar

russian emperor

Russian Revolution

Ended the rule of the czars

USSR

union of soviet socialist republics or the Soviet Union for short

Command economy

An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.

Collective farm

huge government created farms that employed large numbers of workers; all crops are distributed by the government

supra

Huge Georgian dinner party. Means "Tablecloth", and there is a lot of food.there can also be short speeches and toasts

Baryshnikov

male ballet dancer who inspired many other males to pursue ballet

vodka

unaged colorless liquor originating in Russia

Stravinsky Tchaikovsky

Famous composer

Dostoevsky Pushkin

famous writer

Kasha

russian dish: rice with butter

Chechnya

a "country" that wants independence from Russia but have been repeatedly denied it. They have turned to terrorism as a way to get freedom

Central Asia

a region consisting of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan

Aral Sea

one of the biggest man-made naturals disasters in human history. The amu-dyra and syru-dayra (rivers that feed it) were diverted to water cotton and has caused the Aral sea to lose more than 80% of its water

Banya

A bathouse where Russians perform a cleaning ritual

Volga

The longest river in Europe that flows through Russia to the Caspian Sea

Gobi

Desert that separates China from Mongolia

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