Chemistry Final Exam Review (Spring '11)

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integrated tests and quizzes

ionic compound formed by magnesium and chloride

MgCl₂

formula for binary ionic compound formed by Fe⁺² and phosphorus

Fe₃P₂

formula for binary ionic compound formed by sodium and bromite

NaBrO₂

name of binary ionic compound Au₃(PO₄)₂

gold (II) phosphate

formula for binary molecular compound tetranitrogen pentachloride

N₄Cl₅

name of the acid: HBr (aq)

hydrobromic acid

name of the acid: H₂SO₃

Sulfurous acid

formula for nitrous acid

HNO₂ (aq)

indicates that a chemical reaction has occurred:

release of energy as light, color change, gas bubble formation

In a chemical equation, the formula of a substance in water solution is followed by the symbol:

(aq)

The Greek letter delta (Δ) above the arrow in a chemical equation means:

the reactants are heated

What can you predict by using an activity series?

whether a certain displacement reaction can occur

In stoichiometry, molar mass is used to:

relate the mass of a substance to the amount in moles of that substance

In stoichiometry, mole ratio is used to:

convert the amount in moles of one substance to an amount in moles of another substance

Molar masses are determined from:

the periodic table

The type of stoichiometry problem that involves the most steps is a:

mass-to-mass conversion

If, in the reaction A + B->C + D, the quantity of B is insufficient to react with all of A,

B is the limiting reactant.

measured amount of product obtained from a chemical reaction is the

actual yield

hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory is known as:

an ideal gas

Assumption of the kinetic-molecular theory of gases

temperature of a gas depends on the average kinetic energy of the gas particles

used to calculate the kinetic energy, KE, of a moving particle

KE= ½mv²

physical properties of gases

absence of definite volume, high compressibility, fluidity

states of matter that are fluid

gases and liquids

liquid can be described as a form of matter that:

has a definite volume

liquids are more ordered than gases because liquids have:

stronger intermolecular forces and lower mobility of the particles

Examples of intermolecular forces (IMAFs):

hydrogen bonding, London Dispersion forces, dipole-dipole interactions

water forms roughly spherical drops because of its:

surface tension

If energy as heat is removed, most liquids will eventually

freeze

According to the kinetic molecular theory, particles in solids

vibrate around fixed points

order of strength of intermolecular forces from least to greatest

liquid, solid, gas

Equilibrium is characterized by

opposing processes occurring at equal rates

process of changing from a solid to a gas is known as

sublimation

Temperature at which the vapor pressure of a substance equals atmospheric pressure is its

boiling point

amount of energy needed to melt one mole of a substance is its molar

enthalpy of fusion

Bond between oxygen and hydrogen in a water molecule is

polar-covalent

Reason for the relatively low density of ice:

empty spaces between molecules

water's relatively high boiling point is the result of

hydrogen bonding

instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure

barometer

STP

1 atm and 0°C

Ideal Gas Law

PV=nRT

assumed constant in Boyle's Law

n and T

Boyle's Law

P₁V₁=P₂V₂

Gay-Lussac's Law

P₁/T₁=P₂/T₂

assumed constant in Gay-Lussac's Law

n and V

Charles' Law

V₁/T₁=V₂/T₂

assumed constant in Charles' Law

n and P

Combined Gas Law:

P₁V₁/T₁=P₂V₂/T₂

T(K)=

T(°C) + 273.15

Heterogeneous mixture that has large particles that settle out is called a

suspension

Exhibits the Tyndall effect

colloid

When the size of the particles in a solution and in a colloid are compared, the particle size in the solution is

smaller.

A substance that is not soluble in a polar solvent is most likely

nonpolar

Increases the speed of the dissolving process of a solid in a liquid:

increasing temperature of the solvent, increasing surface area of the solute, shaking or stirring the solution

solution that contains the max amount of dissolved solute at a particular temperature is said to be

saturated

What happens when an acetic acid, a weak electrolyte, dissolves in water?

hydronium ions form, resulting solution will conduct electricity, most of the acid remains as nonionzed molecules in equilibrium with ions

process of forming a solid by combining two ionic solutions is called

precipitation

When a nonvolatile solute dissolves in a solvent, the vapor pressure of the solvent:

Drecreases.

When a nonvolatile solute dissolves in a solvent, its freezing point______the freezing point of a pure solvent.

is less than

When a nonvolatile solute is added to a solvent, its boiling point_____the boiling point of a pure solvent

is greater than

formula for the compound formed by lead (II) ions and chromate ions

PbCrO₄

formula for aluminum sulfate

Al₂(SO₄)₃

HNO₃ (aq)

nitric acid

formula for hypobromous acid

HBrO (aq)

In a chemical reaction:

the mass of the reactants equals the mass of the products

Indicators of a chemical reaction occurring:

formation of precipitate, produceses gas, evolution of heat and light

A chemical equation is balanced when

the same number of each kind of atom appears in the reactants and in the products

study of the mass relationships among reactants and products in a chemical reaction

reaction stoichiometry

max possible amount of product obtained in a chemical reaction

theoretical yield

efficiency of a reaction

percentage yield

produces carbon dioxide and water

combustion reaction

process by which molecules of a gas randomly encounter and pass through a small opening in a container

effusion

particles in a liquid are usually

closer together and lower in energy than those in a gas

In general, most substances are

most dense in the solid state

solids and liquids both have this property

definite volume

molecules at the surface of a liquid can enter the vapor phase only if

their energy is high enough to overcome the attractive forces in the liquid

at pressures greater than 1 atm, water will boil at

a temperature higher than 100°C

during the process of freezing, a liquid

loses kinetic energy

if force is held constant as surface area decreases, pressure

increases

developed the concept that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of their partial pressures

Dalton

separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves is called

dissociation

Ions are formed from solute molecules by the action of the solvent in a process called

ionization

colligative properties depend on

the concentration of the solute particles

which elements exist as diatomic molecules?

Br I N Cl H O F

one part of the molecule has a slight positive charge and the other a slight negative charge (one is more electronegative)

Polar Molecules i.e. H₂O

molecule that shares electrons equally and does not have oppositely charged ends

Nonpolar Molecules i.e. H₂, O₂

compounds where two or more ions are held next to each other by electrical attraction (M+NM; cation+anion)

Ionic Compounds i.e. Fe₂(SO₄)₃

type of attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial electric charges of opposite polarity

Hydrogen Bonding

attractive forces between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another polar molecule

Dipole-Dipole

the weakest intermolecular force; a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles.

London Dispersion

Acid + Base= Salt + H₂O

Neutralization reaction

no repeating pattern, only short range order, extensively disordered

amorphous solids

highly regular arrangement of atoms, ions, molecules - periodic (repeating)

crystalline solids

the process by which molecules spread from areas of high concentratiion, to areas of low concentration

diffusion

1 atm=

760 mmHg

The pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of all of the constituent gases alone.

Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures

composed of different substances or the same substance in different phases, as solid ice and liquid water; not uniform throughout

heterogenous mixtures

having a common property throughout

homogeneous mixtures

M=n/V (kg)

Molality

larger than most inorganic molecules and remain suspended indefinitely

colloids

M=n/V (L)

Molarity

M₁V₁=M₂V₂

dilution of concentrated solution

VP lowering; FP Lowering; BP Elevation, Osmotic Pressure

Colligative Properties

Solve for [H₃O⁺], [OH⁻], pH, and pOH

1) [H₃O⁺] [OH⁻] = 1.0 x 10⁻¹⁴
2) pH = -log[H₃O⁺]
3) pOH = -log[OH⁻]
4) pH + pOH = 14

7 Strong Acids

1)HCl hydrochloric acid
2) HNO₃ nitric acid
3) H₂SO₄ sulfuric acid
4) HBr hydrobromic acid
5) HI hydroiodic acid
6) HClO₃ chloric acid
7) HClO₄ perchloric acid

8 Strong Bases

1) LiOH lithium hydroxide
2) NaOH sodium hydroxide
3) KOH potassium hydroxide
4) Ca(OH)₂ calcium hydroxide
5) RbOH rubidium hydroxide
6) Sr(OH)₂ strontium hydroxide
7) CsOH cesium hydroxide
8) Ba(OH)₂ barium hydroxide

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