revolution that occurred in the Neolithic age; period of human history from 8000 BC to 5000 BC; shifted from hunting and gathering to domestication of animals; grew crops; had food surplus; specialized jobs (artisans/division of labor); built protection; encouraged trade
Egypt Old Kingdom
2700 BC-2200 BC
Battle at Thermopylae
in 480 B.C. Xerxes was trying to crush the Greeks and 7,000 Greeks (300 of them Spartans) fought here. Spartans die but the succeeded in their efforts to slow down the Persians, Persian Victory
Fall Of Roman Empire
The rome empire fell due to many causes some where the germanic tribes invaded them,divided empire,population decline and moral decay. 476 BC
(202 BC - 220 AD) dynasty started by Lui Bang; a great and long-lasting rule, it discarded the harsh policies of the Qin dynasty and adopted Confucian principles; Han rulers chose officials who passed the civil service exams rather than birth; it was a time of prosperity
622- Flight from Mecca to Medina
Birth Of Buddha
Birth Of Confucius
Death of Genghis Khan
Voyages of Zheng He
1371-1435 voyages by Zheng He; visited western coast of India and city-states of East Africa. Voyages of political and military matters rather than for exploration. Demonstrated China's potential to develop maritime trade and become a major maritime power
Cortez Defeats Monteczuma
Revival of learning or "rebirth" that ocurred in Europe between 1300 and 1600. a period of artistic, cultural, and intellectual revival.
1550-1700-a major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
1789-1799 the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1800
The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
Golden Age Of Greece
began when the Persian Wars ended and ended when Pericles died. A period when the city-states of Greece achieved a high level of culture and political stability: advances in science, math philosiphy, art, theatre, architecture, politics, where Greek civilization was at it's highest
founded by Siddhartha Gautama and explained the way to salvation: self-discipline and poverty. It evolved from Hinduism. The Caste System is rejected by Buddhists who believe instead that one is reincarnated until they can achieve nirvana, best described as spiritual
in China a system of beliefs and behavior based on the teachings of confucious. Doesn't involve worshipping gods. Believed in he civil service exam and of rule by talent.
1. social order harmony and good government should be based on family relationships
2. respect for parents and elders is important to a well ordered society
3. educations is important both to the welfare of the individual and to the society
the religious faith of Muslims, based on the words and religious system founded by the prophet Muhammad and taught by the Koran, the basic principle of which is absolute submission to a unique and personal god, Allah.--other ideas: Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims, 5 pillars of islam: faith prayer alms fasting pilgrimage
Religion emerging from Middle East in the first century C.E. holding Jesus to be the son of God who sacrificed himself on behalf of mankind. The three major categories of Christianity are Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox
A political, economic, and social system where by a powerful lord would offer "protection" in return for "service"
Why did feudalism decline?
-workers did not want to come home and be under the control of a lord (increase power to monarchy)
- more people move to the cities
Pro's Con's mongol empire
Hammurabi Law code
based on Sumerian law, the Code of Hammurabi allowed all people to see the laws of the empire. Worked on the basis of "an eye for an eye" and covered all aspects of society, but favored the wealthy.
Justinian Law Code
means body of civil law, 4 parts: code of law, corpus, digest, and novels, became vasis of legal system in all of Europe
Napoleonic Law Code
A human being who hunts animals and gathers plants for food, moving to a different location whenever such food becomes scarce.
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
Waterways, paths, and trails that traders used to move goods for exchange from one place to another.
the most famous of the trading routes established by pastoral nomads connecting the European India and Chinese civilizations; transmitted goods and ideas among civilizations.
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy
a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
Scottish political economist and philosopher. His Wealth of Nations (1776) laid the foundations of classical free-market economic theory, government should not interfere with economics. Advocates Laissez Faire
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) explaining the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
Mandate of heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China.
the historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties
belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
Consent of the governed
agreement by the people of a nation to subject themselves to the authority to a government. Natural rights philosophers, such as John Locke, believe that any legitimate government must draw its authority from the consent of the governed.
These two dynasties gave China a prolonged Golden Age, and helped China become the most advanced country in the world; created the movable type, gunpowder, and the compass; increased its population because they had rice from Vietnam; Japan borrowed Chinese ideas.
-pottery landscape and painting and porcelain making reached new heights durring this period.
Dynasty established by Khubilai Khan in China. Mongols stood aloof from Chinese subjects. They were not allowed to mingle with them whom they saw as simple cultivators. Some Mongols suggested killing the Chinese and converting the land to pasture. They also did not adapt Chinese cultural traditions but allowed subjects to be any of any faith
Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.
Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. The Crusades brought an end to western Europe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation. 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade
100 years war
between france and england, in the late 14th and early 15th centuries, between two royal houses for the French throne. It introduced new military weapons that outlawed the need for feudal armies and also had the first standing army since the Roman Empire. France ends up winning and ending the feudal system in western europe. now centralized monarchy
Battle of Trafalgar
An 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson
Roman peace,' The stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C.E. The movement of people and trade goods along Roman roads and safe seas allowed for the spread of cuture/ideas (154)
It was a time of peace and height during the Mongol Empire. During this time the Mongols were facilitating a lot of trade and commerce as well as having ample communication with other empires, using the Silk Road network that was reopened. One side effect of the _____ was the spread of the Black Plague, which was the reason for a major population decrease within the civilization.
"British Peace," a century-long period beginning with Napoleon's defeat at waterloo in 1815 and ending with the outbreak of World War I in 1914 during which Britain's economic and diplomatic influence contributed to economic openness and relative peace
System in India that gives every Indian a particular place in the social hierarchy from birth. Individuals may improve the position they inherit in the caste system in their next life through their actions, or karma. After many lives of good karma, they may be relieved from cycle of life and win their place in heaven.
The ability of individuals to move from one social standing to another. Social standing is based on degrees of wealth, prestige, education and power.
Growth of the middle class
The development of it led to demands for social reforms because people wanted better representation in government of the rising power in other people. They had money but no power. The believed in a say of how their countries should be changed. these reformswea wanted to change voting rights and have more representation in government. this led to the reform act of 1832 which gave representation in parliament in industrialization. Cities increased voting for men and reduced aristocracy.
the first estate was the clergy and the second was the nobles. Both the first and second had special privileges that they enjoyed under the regime; they were not taxed. The third estate was made up of mainly peasants. They were discontented because they had no money and they didn't have much say in anything. They were not considered to be of any value, so they were ignored.
men of women who were the poorest members of society, peasants who worked the lord's land in exchange for protection
A general term for a class of prosperous families, sometimes including but often ranked below the rural aristocrats.
Alexander the great
son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
Ruled Athens while Athens was in a Golden Age. The government became more democratic and the economy thrived. Athens had a direct democracy under Pericles.
-Equal justice for all people
(universal ruler)his goal was to conquer the world-he die in 1227, when his empire reached from western russia to eastern korea-he did not conquer the world , but did rule one of the largest empires ever created- united mongols
The Ottoman king who began the custom of killing the most able sons, producing a long line of weak sons. spread the empire, many cultural interests, expanded military
This man was the greatest leader of the Mughal empire. Ruling from 1556-1605, he conquered the northern two thirds of the Indian sub-continent. He is known for being a tolerant and liberal ruler.
Last Aztec Ruler; encountered Cortes and the Spanish and saw that they rode horses; Montezuma assumed that the Soanush were gods. He welcomed them hospitably, but the explorers soon turned on the natives and ruled them for three centuries.
Inca ruler who was tricked into a conference by Francisco Pizarro, tried to ransom himself with a hoard of gold, and was executed by garroting. The Spaniards then fought their way to Cuzco and conquered his Empire
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. 3 laws
Publicized Copernicus's findings; used the telescope to study moon and planets; added discoveries concerning the laws of gravity; condemned by the Catholic church for his work.
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa. (pp. 355, 422)
Roman general, statesman, and historian who invaded Britain, crushed the army of his political enemy Pompey, pursued other enemies to Egypt, where he installed Cleopatra as queen, returned to Rome, and was given a mandate by the people to rule as dictator for life. On March 15 of the following year he was murdered by a group of republicans led by Cassius and Brutus.
The last king of France before the French Revolution; the husband of Marie Antoinette. He at first accepted a change from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy in France. Then he tried to flee the country and was brought back a prisoner. Radicals, including the Jacobins, assumed control of the revolution and had Louis and Marie Antoinette beheaded for treason.
Son of a peasant. Commanded a rebel army that drove the Mongols out of China. The first emperor of the Ming Dynasty. Began reforms to restore agricultural lands, destroy Mongol past, and promote China's power and prosperity. Restored merit-based civil serice examination system.