guarentee a set labor supply. identified blacks as a seperate class with fewer liberties and more restrictions than white citizens. varied from state to state. blacks could not serve on a jury and were not allowed to vote. were barred from renting or leasing land and in many states could not carry firearms without a liscenes. required to enter into annual labor contracts and could be punished, required to forfeit back pay, or forced to work if they violated the contract
highly educated scholar. 1909 he helped to found the NAACP(one of the nation's formost organizations)
Martin Luther King Jr.
eloquent speaker and natural leader. said "we must use the weapin of love". organized sit-ins in Montgomery, Alabama and Selima, Alabama. fought for the right to vote, desegration, fair hiring, and other basic civil rights. his "i have a dream speach" gave hope to lots of people. he was murdered in April of 1968 as he prepared to march in Memphis, TN
Plessy v. Ferguson(1896)
refused to move on train, was arrested. the courts majority opinion stated that seperate railroad facilities for blacks and whites were equal. court did not feel that seperate but equal doctrine violated the 14 amendment since it did not deny rights to black citizens. this essentially allowed racial segregation
fair employment act of 1941
phillip randolph proposed a march on washington but didn't happen because of the fair employment act. the act requires that federal agencies only do business with private employers that do not "discriminate against person of any race or color"
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Congress Of Racial Equity
Student Non-violent Cordinating Committee
Southern Christian Leadership Confernce
freed all slaves, abolished slavery, and involuntary servitude. Scottv. Stanford(1857) made this a necesity
citizenship given to anyone born in the U.S., forbids states from diminishing the "privileges or immunities" of citizenship(sec. struck down black codes). prohibits states from depriving any person of life, liberty, or property without "due process of law" and forbids states to deny any person "the equal protection of the law."
prohibited states from denying anyone the right to vote "on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
committee on civil rights-1947 committee issued a report on civil rights, recommending that the justice department play a larger role. his support created a firestorm in congress and throughout the democratic pourty.this legislation was never enacted. democratic party split-when he signed an executive order in 1948 that abolished segregation in the armed forces and in the federal bureacracy. his iniatitives would split the democratic party and spawn the dixiecrats a states' rights democratic party, in their efforts to win the white house in1948 with canididate govenor storm thurmond
dynamic conservation-appeales to both republicans and democrats. federal level-he only acted on the federal level appointment of Earl Warren-he appointed him in1953 to the supreme court civil rights act of 1957-was created to inforce african american voting rights in the south and put measures in place to prevent mob violence in school desegregation disputes. first civil rights legislation in 90 years since the civil war. bill made it illegal to try to prevent a person from voting in a federal election also created the civil rights devision with in the department and the civil rights comission to investigate racial discriminstion, espicially concerning voting .
elected on his promise of a new frontier. rhetorically asked "...who amoung us would be content to have the color of his skin changed and stand in his place? who amoung us would be content with the councels of patience and delay?...I shall ask the congress to make a commitment it has not fully made in this century to the position the race has no place in american life or law." assination-kennedy was assinated on November 22,1963. civil rights act of 1964 came on heels of his death.
civil rights act of 1964- african american men with protected rights; banned discrimination in public facilities, and established equal employment opportunity. also created Equal Employment Opportunity Comission. (EEOC) voting rights act if 1965- enforces the 24 and 25 amendment equal protection. prohibited the use of literacy testing and providing federal legislation in areas where under half of all eligible voters were registered. extremely effective. 24 amendment- passed the amendment ended poll taxes in federal elections civil rights act of 1968- made racial discrimination in housing illegal and provided protection for civil rights workers. A.K.A fair housing act of 1968
sweatt v. painter
feelings amoung blacks that they remained "second-class citizens" created frustration and disillusionment within the black population