Dev Psych Chpt 5, 6, 7 - First 2 years

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The average North American newborn

weighs approx 7 1/2 lbs

Compared to the first year, growth during the second year

proceeds at a slower rate

The major motor skill most likely to be mastered by an infant before the age of 6 mos is

sitting with head steady

Norms suggest that the earliest walkers in the world are infants from

Uganda

Head-sparing is the phenomenon in which

the brain continues to grow even though the body stops growing as a result of malnutrition

Dreaming is characteristic of

REM sleep

For a pediatrician, the most important factor in assessing a child's healthy growth is

the percentile rank of a child's height of weight

Brain functions that depend on babies having things to see and hear and people to feed and carry them are called

experience-expectant

Compared with formula-fed infants, breast fed infants tend to have

fewer allergies and digestive upsets

Maramus and kwashiorkor are caused by

protein-calorie deficiency

The infant's first "motor skills" are

reflexes

Which of the following is said to have had the greatest impact on human mortality reduction and population growth

childhood immunizatino

Which of the following is true of motor skill development in healthy infants

it follows the same basic sequence the world over; occurs at different rate from individual to individual; it follows norms that vary from one ethnic group to another

All the nerve cells a human brain will ever need are present

at birth

Chronically malnourished children suffer in which of the following ways

They have no body reserves to protect them, their brains may not develop normally, they may die from marsmus

Dendrite is to axon as neural ____ is to neural _____

input; output

A reflex is best defined as an

involuntary response to a given stimulus

A norm is

a standard, or average, that is derived for a specific group or population

Most babies can reach for, grasp, and hold onto an object by about the _____ month

sixth

Regarding the brain's cortex, which of the following is not true

only primates have a cortex

During the first weeks of life, babies seem to focus reasonably well on

objects at a distance of 4-30 inches

Which sleep stage increases markedly at about 3 or 4 months

slow-wave

An advantage of breast milk over forumla is that it

is always sterile and at body temperature

Synapses are

intersections between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of other neurons

Transient exuberance and pruning demonstrate that

the specifics of brain structure and growth depend partly on the infant's experience

Climbing is to using a crayon as ______ is to _______

gross motor skill; fine motor skill

Some infant reflexes are critical for survival. Hiccups and sneezes help the infant maintain the ____ and leg tucking maintains ______

oxygen supply; a constant body temp

Compared with the brains of laboratory rats that were raised in barren cages, those of rats raised in stimulating, toy-filled cages

were better developed and had more dendritic branching

In determining a healthy child's growth, a pediatrician focuses on

the child's past growth, the growth of the child's brothers and sisters, the stature of other children

Infant sensory and perceptual abilities appear to be especially organized for

comfort and social interaction

Newborns have 2 identifiable emotions

pleasure and pain

Parenting that focuses more on children's intellectual development than on their physical development is called

distal parenting

An infant's fear of being left by the mother or other care giver, called ____, is most obvious at about _____

separation anxiety; 9-14 mos

Social referencing refers to

the infant response of looking to trusted adults for emotional cues in uncertain situations

A key difference between temperament and personality is that

personality includes traits that are primarily learned

The concept of a working model is most consistent with

cognitive therapy

Freud's oral stage corresponds to Erikson's crisis of

trust vs mistrust

Erikson believed that the development of a sense of trust in early infancy depends on

consistency, continuity, and sameness of experience

Keisha is concerned that her 15-month old daughter, who no longer seems to enjoy face to face play, is showing signs of insecure attachment. You tell her

not to worry; face to face play almost disappears toward the end of the first year

"Easy", "slow to warm up" and "difficult" are descriptions of different

types of temperament

The more physical play of fathers has been described as

proximal parenting

Synchromy is a term that describes

the carefully coordinated interaction between caregiver and infant

The emotional tie that develops between an infant and his or per primary caregiver is called

attachment

Research studies using the still-face technique have demonstrated that

a parent's responsiveness to an infant aids development

Interest in people, as evidenced by the social smile, appears for the first time when an infant is _____ wks old

6

Infant-caregiver interactions that are marked by inconsistency are usually classified as

disorganized

Freud's anal stage corresponds to Erikson's crisis of

autonomy vs shame and doubt

Not until the sense of self begins to emerge do babies realize that they are seeing their own faces in the mirror. This realization usually occurs

between 15 and 24 mos

When there is goodness of fit, the parents of a slow-to-warm-up boy will

give him extra time to adjust to new situations

Emotions such as shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride emerge at the same time that

self-awareness begins to emerge

Research by the NYLS on temperamental characteristics indicates that

temperament is probably innate

In the second 6 mos, stranger wariness is a

normal emotional response

The caregivigin environment can affect a child's temperament through

the child's temperamental pattern and the demands of the home environment

While observing mothers playing with their infants in a playroom, you notice one mother who often teases her son, ignores him when he falls down, and tells him to "hush" when he cries. Mothers who display these behaviors usually have infants who exhibit which type of attachment

disorganized

The later consequences of secure attachment and insecure attachment for children are

balanced by the child's current rearing circumstances

The attachment pattern marked by anxiety and uncertainty is

insecure-resistant/ambivalent

Compared with mothers, father are more likely to

engage in noisier, more boisterous play

Like Freud, Erikson believed that

problems arising in early infancy last a lifetime

Which of the following is an example of social learning

Zach develops a hot temper after seeing his father regularly display anger and, in turn, receive respect from others

Which of the following is not true regarding synchrony

Synchrony appears to be uninfluenced by cultural differences

In general terms, the Gibsons' concept of affordances emphasizes the idea that the individual perceives an object in terms of its

function or use to the individual

According to Piaget, when a baby repeats an action that has just triggered a pleasing response from his or her caregiver, a stage ___ behavior has occurred

3

Sensorimotor intelligence begins with a baby's first

reflex actions

Piaget and the Gibsons would most likely agree that

learning and perception are active cognitive processes

By the end of the first year, infants usually learn how to

accomplish simply goals

When an infant begins to understand that objects exist even when they are out of sight, she or he has begun to understand the concept of object

permanence

Today, most cognitive psychologists view language acquisition as

determined by both biological maturation and learning

Despite cultural differences, children all over the world attain very similar language skills

in the same sequence according to a variable timetable

The average baby speaks a few words at about

12 months

A single word used by toddlers to express a complete thought is

a holophrase

A distinctive form of language, with a particular pitch, structure, etc that adults use in talking to infants is called

the LAD

Habituation studies reveal that most infants detect the difference between a pah sound and a bah sound at

1 month

The imaging technique in which the brain's magnetic properties indicate activation in various parts of the brain is called an

MRI

A toddler who taps on the computer's keyboard after observing her mother sending email the day before is demonstrating

deferred imitation

In Piaget's theory of sensorimotor intelligence, reflexes that involve the infant's own body are examples of

primary circular reactions

Stage five (12-18 mos) of sensorimotor intelligence is best described as

the period of the "little scientist"

Which of the following is not evidence of dynamic perception during infancy

Babies quickly grasp that even though objects look different when seen from different viewpoints, they are the same objects

Research suggests that the concept of object permanence

may occur earlier and more gradually than Piaget recognized

Which of the following is an example of a secondary circular reaction

realizing that rattles make noise, a 4 month old infant laughs with delight when his mother puts a rattle in his hand

18 mo old Colin puts a collar on his stuffed dog, then pretends to take it for a walk. Colin's behavior is an example of a

tertiary circular reaction

According to Piaget, the use of deferred imitation is an example of stage ___ behavior

6

For Noam Chomsky, the language acquisition device refers to

the human disposition to acquire language

The first stage of sensorimotor intelligence lasts until

infants begin to adapt their reflexes to the environment

Whether or not an infant perceives certain characeristics of objects, such as "suckability" or "graspability" seems to depend on

his or her prior experiences; his or her needs; his or her sensory awareness

Piaget was incorrect in his belief that infants do not have

object permanence

The purposeful actions that begin to develop in sensorimotor stage four are called

goal-directed behaviors

What is the correct sequence of stages of language development

crying, cooing, babbling, first word

Compared with hearing babies, deaf babies

begin to babble manually at about the same age as hearing babies begin to babble vocally

According to Skinner, children acquire language

through reinforcement and other aspects of conditioning

A fundamental idea of the emergentist coalition model of language acquisition is that

some aspects of language are best learned in one way at one age, others in another way at another age

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