The 3 methods of control for a disease:
1. Eliminate the disease-causing agent
2. Prevent the organism from multiplying to a level which can cause a disease
3. Eliminating the reservoir.
Direct Transmission can be blocked by: (2)
Hand Washing - most important
Protective apparel such as gloves, gowns, masks, protective eye wear
Indirect transmission can be avoided by: (3)
Avoid bites from arthopod vectors (ticks)
Avoid disease spread by common vehicles
Proper canning, prepartation, serving and storage of food
Canning requires a processing temp of _____ to destroy spores of ________
250 degreed F
Poultry must be heated to an internal temperature of _______ to help prevent ________
165 degrees F
Steam serving tables should maintain a minimum temp of _____
140 degrees F
Refrigeration should have a temp below _____
45 degress F
When Staphylococcus ______is found in food, it must be thrown away because _____
it cannot be inactivated by heat
What is a Vaccine?
A suspension of attenuated live or killed microorganisms given to induce immunity.
Common Vaccines are: (3)
1. Live attenuated viral vaccines
2. Killed or fractionated viral vaccines
3. Killed or fractional baterial vaccines
Live attenuated viral vaccines examples:
measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), polio
Killed or fractionated viral vaccine examples
flu, hep B, rabies
Killed or Fractional bacteria vaccine examples
cholera, meningococcal, pneumococcal
A modified bacterial toxin which has been rendered nontoxic but still has the ability to stimulate the formation of antitoxin such as tetanus toxoids.
A sterile solution of human antibodies used for passive immunization.
What are the 5 Immunoglobin categories?
(In this order from highest %-Lowest % - GAMED)
IgG - % and description
(85%) - Most prevalent antibody in the body and increases secondary to IgM to help fight viruses, bact., toxins. Increase from infections, chronic disease, multiple myeloma and rheumatoid arthritis
IgA - % and description
(5-10%) - found in body secretions and mucosa linings of bronchial tract and the GI tract. First line of defense against point of entry invasion of body. Increases with: mucosa irritation, exercise, alchohol, liver disease.
IgM - % and description
5-10% First antibody to increase upon antigens entering the body. Increases with: rheumatoid factorsm and gram negative disease
IgE - % and description
Small Amount - Increase upon hypersensitivity and parasitic worms.
IgD - % and description
trace - response unknown
sterile solution of human antibodies prepared from donor pools selected for a high antibody titer content against a specific disease.
Three types of serious diseases and their consqences from not getting vaccines:
This is bullshit, get it from chapter 4
What must be considered when debating to become vaccinated?
Benefits vs Risks.