American History 2nd Semester

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At the end of the Civil War, many white southerners still believed that:

their view of secession was correct and their cause was just

The greatest achievements of the Freedmen's bureau was:

in education

The white south viewed the Freedmen's Bureau as:

a meddlesome federal agency that threatened to upset white racial dominance

In President Andrew Johnsons view, the Freedmen's bureau

was a meddlesome agency that should be killed

In his 10 percent plan for Reconstruction, President Lincoln promised

rapid readmission of Southern stared into the Union

Congressional Republicans believed

that the Southern states had completely left the Union and conuered provencies that had to seek readmission on whatever terms...

Pres Johnsons plan for reconstruction

aimed at a swift restoratioin of the southern states after a few basic conditions were met

The incident that caused the clash between Congress and President Johnson to explode into the passage of Johnson's veto of the bill extended

the Freedmen's Bureau.

In the postwar South

the economy and social structure was utterly devastated

Freedom for Southern blacks at the end of the Civil War

came haltingly and unevenly in different parts of the conquered Confederacy

The 14th Amendment

guaranteed citizenship and civil rights to freed slaves and prohibited ex-confederate leaders from holding public office

Johnson's veto of the Civil Rights Bill of 1866 prompted Congress

to seek passage of articles of impeachment against Johnson

In the 1866 congressional elections, voters

endorsed the congressional approach to Reconstruction

Both moderate and radical Republicans agreed that

freed slaves must be granted the right to vote

The last of the Reconstruction era amendments to pass was

the Fifteenth

A primary motive for the formation of the KKK was

white resentment of the ability and success of black legislatures

Johnson was narrowly acquitted on the impeachment charges because

it was finally recognized that the charges were dubious and political

All of the following reasons the Senate voted to acquit President Johnson except

Johnson promised to step down as president

Reconstruction might have been successful if

steven's radical program had been enacted

Reconstruction involved extended controversies over

readmission of Southern States into the Union, Civil and Political Rights for former slaves, direction and control of reconstruction, treatment of Confederate leaders

The greatest economic consequence of the transcontinental railroad network was that it

united the nation into a single, integrated national market

Efforts to regulated the monopolizing practices of railroad corporations first came in the form of

action by state legislatures

One of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act was that it

represented the first large-scae attempt by the federal government to regulate business

One of the methods by which post- Civil War business leaders increased their profits was

elimination of as much competition as possible

Andrew Carnegie
John D. Rockefeller
J. Pierpont Morgan

Vertical integration
trust
interlocking dectorate

The vast, integrated continental US market greatly enhanced the American inclination toward

Interstate Commerce Commission

the organization technique with vertical integration within a single company was started by

Carnegie with the Steel Industry

the organization technique with vertical integration within a single company was started by

US steel

The gospel of wealth endorsed by Andrew Carnegie

The wealth should display moral responsibility in the use of God-Given money

Believers in the "survival of the fittest," like Spencer and Sumner believed that

The wealthy deserved riches because they demonstrated greater ability than the poor

to help corporations, courts interpreted the 14th amendment which was designed to protect rights of ex-slaves, so as to

avoid corporation regulation by the states

The ____ Amendment was especially helpful to giant corporation when defending themselves against regulation by state government.

14th

The Sherman Anti-Trust act prohibited

private corporations or organizations from engaging in "combination" or restraints or trade

During the age of industrialization, the South

remained overwhelmingly rural and agricultural

Which one is least like the other four (yellow dog contract, lockout, blacklist, company, closed shop)

closed shop

Generally the Supreme court in the late 19th century interpreted the Constitution in such a way as to favor

corporations

Knights of Labor believed that conflict between capital and labor would disappear when

labor would own and operate business and industries

The most effective and enduring Labor Union of the post Civil War period was the

AF of L

a major factor in the shift in US foreign policy toward imperialism in the late 19th century was

need for overseas market

The new immigrants who came to the US after 1880

were culturally different from previous immigrants

Most new immigrants tried

to preserve their Old Country culture in America

New Immigrant groups were regarded with special hostility by many nativist Americans because

their religions were distinctly different and some New Immigrants were politically radical

A major factor in the shift in the American foreign policy toward imperialism was

the need for overseas markets for increased industrial and agricultural production

Alfred Thayer Mahan argued that

control of the sea was key to world domination

To justify involvement in Venezuelan boundary dispute with Britian, Olney invoked the

Monroe doctrine

The Cuban insurrectos who wanted to overthrow Spanish rule in Cuba

adopted a scorched earth policy

US favored providing aid to cuban revolutionaries for all except

national security threat

The battleship Maine was sunk by

an accidental internal explosion

President McKinley asked congress to declare war on spain becaue

American public and many leading republicans demanded it

The Teller Amendment

guaranteed the US would support cuban independence

A major weakness of Spain in the Spanish American war was its

Navy

The Philippine nationalist who led the insurrection against both Spanish rule and later the US occupation

Emilio Aguinaldo

All the following were posessions of the US included in the treaty of Paris with Spain except

Hawaii

President McKinley justified US acquisition of the Philippines by emphasizing that

there was no acceptable alternative to their acquisition

Progressivism was closely tied to

the feminist movement and women's causes

American Imperialists who advocated acquisition of the Philippines especially stressed

economic potential for american business men seeking trade with China and the Asians

The real heart of the progressive movement was the effort by reformers to

use the government as an agency to human welfare

David G. Philips
Ida Tarbell
Lincoln Stephens
Ray Stannard Baker

US senate
Standard Oil Company
City Governments
Condition of blacks

Most muckrakers believed their primary function in the progressive attack on social ills was

to make the public aware of social problems

Political progressivism

emerged in both parties in all regions at all levels of the government

The 17th amendment was designed to

make the Senate millionaire's club directly elected by the people

To regain the power people had lost to the interests, progressives advocated all except

socialism

Settlement houses and women's club movements were crucial centers of female progressive activity because they

introduced many middle class women to...array of urban..

In muller v oregon, the supreme court upheld the principle promoted by progressivists like Florence Kelley and Louis Brandeis

Female workers required special rules and protections on the job

Lochner v New york represented a setback for progressives and the labor advocates because in its rulings, the supreme court

declared law limiting work to 10 hours a day unconstitutional

Teddy Roosevel believed that large corporate trusts

were bad only if they acted as monopilies against the public interest

Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle, he inteded the book to focus on

plight of the workers in the stockyards and meat-packing industry

The passage of the Federal Meat Inspection act was made possible by

The jungle

The 16th amendment

premitted congress to enact a personal income tax

President Wilson broke diplomatic relations with German when

Germany announced it would launch unrestricted sub warefare

Zimmerman note involved a secret agreement between

mexico and germany

the us declared war on germany when

u boats sank us boats

wilson persuaded us people to enter wwi by saying that we had to

make the world safe for democracy

wilson viewd the us entry in wwi as an opportunity for the us to

shape a new international order to spread democracy

which was not among the 14 points

freedom of religion

when the us entered wwi it was

poorly prepared

durring wwi civil liberties in the us were

severely damaged by pressures for loyalty and conformity

2 constitutional amendments adopted in part of wwi, were the 18th, which dealt with_____. and the 19 which was____

prohibition, women's suffrage

most wartime mobilization agencies relied on ______to prepare the US for war

voluntary compliance

most of the $ raised to finance WWI came from

loans from the american public

for german military strategists, the us entry into the war meant that

they would have to defeat france and britain before americans came

russias withdrawal from wwi in 1918 resulted in

the release of hundreds of thousands of german troops to france

the military commander of the us during wwi was

john j pershing

the 2nd battle of the marne was significant because it

marked the beginning of german withdrawal that was never reversed

Germans were heavily demoralized by

US troop reserves

The chief difference between wilson and the parliamentary statesmen at the paris peace table was that wilson

did not have legislative majority at home

at the Paris peace treaty conference, wilson sought all of the following except

end to european colonial empires in africa and asia

opposition to the LON by many US senators during the Paris Peace conference

gave allied leaders in paris a stronger bargaining position

in the us, the most controversial aspect of the treaty of versailles was the

LON

Senate oppinents of the LON proposed the treaty of Versailles, argued that it

robbed congress of war declaring powers

The Kellogg-briand pact

outlawed war as a solution to rivalry and conflict

The Fordney-McCumber and Hawley-Smoot Tariff (anyone...anyone...anyone...haha DA) laws had the long term effect of

shrinking international trade and impossible for Europe to repay America

US european allies argued that they should not have to repay US loans because

much heavier price in lost lives so it was only fair for US to write off debt

The Phrase 100 days refers to the

the flood of legislation passed by congress in the first months of FDRs presidency

The agricultural adjustment act proposed to solve the farm problem by

reducing agricultural production

both ratified in the 1930s, the 20th amendmant ______ and the 21st amendment ______

20th - short time between election and inauguration 21st - ended prohibition

1932, FDR campaigned he would attack the great depression by

bold new programs for economic and social reform

JFK's most bitter confrontation with big business occurred

forced steel industry to roll back steel price increase

the bays of pigs invasion failed when

the anti-castro exiles were defeated

When USSR installed nuclear weapons in Cuba, JFK ordered

naval quarantine of the island

the cuban missle crisis resulted in all of the following except

the us agreement to abandon guantanamo

1963 March on Washington led by Martin Luther King Jr. provided critical support for

Civil rights bill to end segregation

Lyndon B. Johnson called his package of domestic reform

the Great society

The landmark of Civil Rights act of 1964

requiring affirmative action against discrimination

The crucial origins of the Cold War lay in a fundamental disagreement between the US and Soviet Union over postwar arrangements in

eastern europe

when the soviet union dedied us, great britain, and france access to berlin in 1948, Truman responded by

organizing an airlift to berlin

under the truman doctrine, the us pledged to

support those who were resisting communists

Marshall plan called for

substantial financial aid to rebuild western europe

President Truman's action upon hearing of the invasion of South Korea illustrated his commitment to a foreign policy of

containment

The immediate crisis that prompted the announcement of the Truman Doctrine was:

related to the threat of a communist takeover in Greece and Turkey

How did Soviet Specialist George F Kennan framed a coherent approach for America in the Cold War?

by advising a policy of containment

The fundamental idea of President Truman's and George Kennan's containment doctrine was:

Soviet expansion should be blocked by firm but not aggressive military and diplomatic strength

Under the Truman Doctrine, the US pledged:

to support those who were resisting subjugation by communist

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