World History Honors Final Flashcards

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This is just the key vocab terms and people from Ch 15-28

Renaissance

"rebirth"; a movement centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome

humanism

intellectual movement during Renaissance; focused on human potential and achievements & worldly subjects

secular

worldly

Baldassare Castiglione

Italian humanist who wrote "The Courtier"

Niccolo Machiavelli

Italian humanist who wrote "The Prince"

Lorenzo de Medici

part of powerful family and supported/funded the arts

Leonardo da Vinci

famous artist; Mona Lisa, The Last Supper; Renaissance man

Michelangelo Buonarroti

famous sculptor; works include Pieta, David, Sistine Chapel

Raphael

painter and architect; The School of Athens

Bramante

architect; St. Peter's Basilica

Johannes Gutenburg

invented movable type; which resulted in most dramatic upheaval in history

Desiderius Erasmus

Christian humanist who wrote extensively about the need for a pure and simple Christian life

Sir Thomas Moore

wrote Utopia

William Shakespeare

famous English playwright

Christine de Pisan

Italian woman who wrote "The City of Women"

Albretcht Durer

German artist who painted with oils and used techinques of realism, perspective, and texture

Jan van Eyck

Flemish painter who focused on landscapes and domestic life, used symbolism

Protestant Reformation

religious movement; split Christan church in Europe and led to establishment of several new churches

indulgences

pardons issued by the pope that could gain salvation and reduce soul's time in purgatory

Martin Luther

German monk whose protests (95 theses) against the Church led to calls for reform

theocracy

est. by Zwingli; a govt in which church and state are joined & officials are considered divinely inspired

John Calvin

important reformer during Reformation; founded Calvinism & predestination

predestination

preached by Calvin; belief that one's salvation is already decided

Henry VIII

king of England who turned from the Catholic church and created the Church of England

annulled

declared invalid; referring to Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Aragon

Elizabeth I

daughter of Henry VIII and protestant Queen who persecuted Catholics

Counter-Reformation

Catholic Church's series of reforms in response to spread of Protestantism

Jesuits

Society of Jesus; influential Catholic group

Ignatius of Loyola

nobleman who founded Jesuit order

Council of Trent

convened to redefine doctrines of the Catholic Faith

Charles Borromeo

archbishop of Milan who took steps to reform

Francis of Sales

worked in France against Calvinism

Teresa of Avila

inspirational Carmelite nun during Counter-Reformation

caravel

a light, fast sailing ship used for exploring

Henry the Navigator

Prince of Portugal and patron of exploration, directed voyages of discovery along the African coast

Vasco da Gama

Portuguese explorer who sailed around the tip of Africa and reached India

Christopher Columbus

Italian explorer who reached the Americas in 1492 while searching for a western sea route to Asia

Ferdinand Magellan

Portuguese explorer who was first to circumnavigate the globe

circumnavigate

sail completely around

Sir Francis Drake

English admiral who rounded the tip of South America and explored the west coast

Henry Hudson

English navigator who discovered the Hudson river

encomienda

Spanish colonial system in which a colonist was given land and Native Americans in exchange for teaching the Natives Christianity

conquistador

conqueror; spanish term

Moctezuma II

Aztec emperor at the time of Spanish arrival

Francisco Pizarro

conquistador who invaded Peru's Incan Empire

Atahualpa

Incan ruler

viceroys

Spanish officials

Bartolome de Las Casas

Spanish priest and reformer

Treaty of Tordesillas

drew an imaginary line through the Atlantic, everything to the west belonged to Spain and everything East was Portugal's

Columbian exchange

global transfer of disease, food, and animals between Europe and America

mercantilism

economic policy that declared a nation's strength depended on its wealth

balance of trade

the difference in value between what a nation imports and exports over a period of time

subsidies

grants of money

capitalism

economic system in which most businesses are privately owned

joint-stock companies

businesses formed by groups of people who jointly make an investment and share in the profits and losses

plantations

estates where cash crops were grown on a large scale

triangular trade

trading network that carried goods and enslaved people between Europe, the Americas, and Africa

Middle Passage

second leg of triangular trade that brought Africans to the Americas to be sold as slaves

Olaudah Equiano

African American abolitionist

African Diaspora

dispersal of African throughout the America and Western Europe

ghazis

warriors for the Islam faith

Ottomans

powerful family of Osman and his descendants

sultan

"ruler"

Janissaries

boys converted to Islam and trained as elite soldiers and made loyal only to the sultan

Mehmed II

strong military Ottoman leader who took Constantinople

Suleyman I

"the Magnificent"; Ottoman empire reached its height under his rule

shah

"king"; Persian title

'Abbas

strong shah of Safavid empire who reformed the government and military

Babur

"the tiger"; known as Zahir ud-Din, founded Mughal Empire

Mughal Empire

founded by Babur; from "Mongol", India's first Muslim empire

Akbar the Great

greatest Mughal ruler, united the empire and reformed government and military

Sikhism

blended Islam and Hinduism

Taj Mahal

greatest example of Mughal architecture

Aurangzeb

self-made Mughal emperor of and expanded its borders, but led to the decline of Mughals

Hongwu

"vastly martial" founded the Ming dynasty, brought reform and prosperity to China by re-instituting Confucian principles and eliminating corrupt officials and reducing taxes

Yonglo

Ming ruler who moved Ming capital to Beijing (Forbidden City built)

Zheng He

Chinese Muslim admiral who led seven voyages around the Indian Ocean to demonstrate China's power and gain tribute

Matteo Ricci

an Italian Jesuit priest who gained influence in China; introduced European thinking

Kangxi

Qing emperor; reduced taxes and expanded empire, supported education and Jesuits

Qianlong

Quing emperor; expanded China to its largest size in history

Lord George Macartney

British official who came to China to discuss expanding trade with China

samurai

trained professional warriors in Japan

Bushido

"the way of the warrior"; strict code of ethics

Zen Buddhism

a form of Buddhism spread throughout China and Japan; stressed discipline and meditation

shogun

"general"

daimyo

powerful warlords who held large estates, gained control of their own territories and battled for power

Tokugawa Ieyasu

established Tokugawa Shogunate after gaining complete control of Japan

haiku

form of poetry with 3 lines and 17 syllables

kabuki

new type of theater in Japan

Yi Song-gye

powerful general gained control of Korea and established Choson kingdom

absolute monarch

a ruler whose power was not limited and believed to be given their power by divine right

divine right

concept that held that the monarchs received their power from God and couldn't be challenged

Charles V

elected Holy Roman Emperor

Peace of Augsburg

agreement that gave each German prince the right to decide whether his state would be Catholic or Protestant

Philip II

Charles' son; led Catholic efforts to recover parts of Europe from protestantism; tried to stop Eng from raiding his ships and return it to Catholicism

El Greco

a Greek painter; religious symbolism

Miguel de Cervantes

wrote Don Quixote

Sister Juana Ines de la Cruz

Mexican nun who wrote poerty, porse and plays

SPanish Armada

Navy assembled by Philip II to attack England

Huguenot

French Calvinist

Saint Batholomew's Day Massacre

event in Paris that killed thousands of Huguenots by order of Catholic queen

Edict of Nantes

granted Huguenots limited freedom of worship and presented break from conformities of the past

Louis XIII

young weak king who ruled with guidance of Cardinal Richelieu

Cardinal Richelieu

chief minister under Louis XIII and most trusted adviser

Louis XIV

"sun king"; history's best example of an absolute monarch; expensive, lavish king (Versailles)

War of the Spanish Succession

war fought over the Spanish throne; Louis XIV wanted it for his son and brought Europe to war over it

Treaty of Utrecht

stated that Louis' grandson got the Spanish throne, but France and Spain would never again have the same monarch, territory had to be surrendered from France

Puritans

a group of strict Calvinists who demanded the Church of England reform

Charels I

Stuart who defied Parliament which triggered the English Civil War

Royalists

Charles' supporters, mainly wealthy nobles; opposition called "roundheads"

commonwealth

a republican govt based on the common good of all the people

Restoration

event in which Parliament reconvened and voted to bring back the monarchy

Charles II

new king of England after Restoration

Glorious Revolution

transfer of power to William III and Mary II, the rightful heirs

William and Mary

Mary was daughter of James I and William was her husband; invited back to rule England

constitutional monarchy

a monarchy limited by law

boyars

landowner in Russia

czar

young prince title in Russia

Ivan IV

"Ivan the Terrible" first Russian ruler to assume title of czar;

Peter the Great

Czar of Russia who transformed Russia into a modern state; westernized Europe

westernization

process of bringing elements of Western culture to Russia

Catherine the Great

Czarina of Russia who introduced a number of reforms and continued Peter's policy of westernization

Thirty Year's War

conflict in Europe that faought over religion and power among ruling dynasties; began after Protestant rebellion against Holy Roman Empire

Treaty of Westphalia

ended the 30 years' war

Maria Theresa

inherited Hapsburg throne

Frederick the Greatt

Prussian ruler who seized the Austrian provinces

geocentric theory

belief that the earth was the center of the universe and the stars, moon, and sun revolved around it

Scientific Revolution

age that posed new theories and ways of thinking in science

scientific method

consists of five basic steps to solving an experiment/problem

Rene Descartes

developed the scientific method

Nicolaus Copernicus

came up with heliocentric theory

heliocentric theory

discovery that the earth revolves around the sun

Galileo

Italian scientist who built first telescope and discovered several planets and moons

Isaac Newton

English scientist who discovered theory of gravity

Robert Boyle

father of modern chemistry; discovered atoms

Lavoisier

law of conservation of mass

Enlightenment

age of reason

salons

social gathering held by Parisian women to promote new ideas

Thomas Hobbes

Englishman believed people needed government to impose order, believed people were naturally "solitary, poor, nasty, brustish..."

social contract

Hobbes' belief in the exchange between society and government

John Locke

English philosopher who believe people were naturally happy, tolerant and reasonale; all are born with natural rights and govt protects natural rights

Jean Jacques Rousseau

French philosopher; believed people were born good and equal; believed govt should work for common good and individuals should be given rights

Baron de Montesquieu

French thinker, argued the best govt. included a separation of powers with branches

Voltaire

French philosopher; attacked injustice in the government

Old Order

ancient regime

King Louis XVI

French king at the time of the Revolution

Marie-Antoinette

Louis' wife; beheaded during revolution

First Estate

made up of Roman Catholic clergy

Second Estate

nobility

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