Metallic (2 metals), Ionic (1 metal and 1 nonmetal), Covalent (2 nonmentals), Hydrogen (dipole between H-N,O,F), Dipole (2 polar molecules), London Dispersion (2 nonpolar molecules)
List from strongest to weakest all the types of bonds
Point at which every substance will always be a gas
The _________ the bond, the higher the melting/boiling point and the lower the freezing point
Solid to a gas
Gas to a solid
Liquid to a gas
Gas to a liquid
the rate of condensation equals the rate of evaporation.
Equilibrium has been established between a liquid and its vapor when...
The solubility of gases in water usually decreases with...
When all phases are present at one point in a phase diagram.
mole solute/L of solvent
mol A/total mol
(mass A/total mass) • 100
(Vol A/total vol) • 100
Percent by volume
mol solute/kg solvent
ΔT = (Kb)(m)(i)
Boiling point elevation formula (add/subtract answer from this formula from the original boiling point temperature to get new boiling point. "m" stands for molality [mol/kg] and "i" stands for number of ions. if substance is a really long chain, like C6H12O6, then it counts as 1 ion. Kb will be given.)
ΔT = (Kf)(m)(i)
Freezing point depression formula (add/subtract answer from this formula from the original freezing point temperature to get new freezing point. "m" stands for molality [mol/kg] and "i" stands for number of ions. If substance is a really long chain, like C6H12O6, then it counts as 1 ion. Kf will be given.)