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glycogenesis

process by which glucose is stored as glycogen

glycogenolysis

breakdown of glycogen

glycolysis

oxidation of glucose

hexose monophoshate shuttle (PPP)

production of 5- carbon monosaccharides and NADH

TCA Cycle (krebs, citric acid)

oxidation of pyruvate and acetyl-CoA

gluconeogenesis

making glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (amino acids)

liver

site of glycogenesis, 7% by weight glycogen (store more in this one space)

skeletal muscle

site of glycogenesis, 1% glycogen (stored throughout body)

glycogen synthase

creates long chains of glucose joined by α 1-4 bonds

branches of glycogen

using α 1-6 glycosidic bonds, are located roughly every 7-13 glucosyl units

glycogenin

protein that starts off the glycogen molecule, found at core of particle

Glycogenin has self glycosylating activity

able to add about 7 glucose units onto itself, end to end

first step of glycogenolysis

glycogen phosphorylase

second step of glycogenolysis

phosphoglucomutase

first step of glycogen synthesis (glycogenesis)

phosphoglucomutase

second step of glycogen synthesis (glycogenesis)

pyrophosphorylase

third step of glycogen synthesis (glycogenesis)

glycogen synthase

epinephrine

A hormone from the adrenal medulla, released in proportion to the increase in metabolic stress; Binds to a beta adrenergic receptor on muscle and liver cells (also binds to α receptor in liver)

adenylyl cyclase

turns ATP into a cyclic AMP (cAMP) and a PPi.

cAMP

activates a protein kinase called protein kinase A (PKA)

protein kinase A(pKA)

phosphorylates two enzymes: glycogen phosphorylase kinase b and glycogen synthase

GPKb

in muscle, activated by increase in Ca

Pi and AMP concentrations

increase sharply and rapidly at the onset of vigorous physical activity.

start of moderately intense steady state exercise

rate of lactate formation is highest, then slowly decreases

liver cell glucose is ↑

no need to break down liver glycogen

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