Latin for "fathers of the families" The older, and thought to be wiser men of the community. Advised the Kings of Rome. Known in a group as the Senate. p16
"Senate", and 'senile" come from Latin word "senex", which means "old man". Made up of the Patres Familiarem "fathers of the families." 300 members. The older, and thought to be wiser men of the community (patricians). Advised the Kings of Rome, served for life. Proposed laws. p16
Comes from Latin "res publica" meaning "the public thing". The people have a say in who leads them. Roman Republic began 509 B.C. and lasted over 400 years! Not a true democracy. powerful people elect representatives. p20
The common, ordinary people of Rome. Outnumbered the patricians 9 to 1! p22
Means "I forbid" in Latin. The two officials (tribunes) elected by the plebians said this when they wanted to defeat/prevent passage of a law (which was the only power they had). p22
Decrees (law) for the entire city of Rome that were passed by the Concilium Plebis. p22
Comitia Centuriata (The Assembly)
A gathering of Roman citizens (mostly patricians) that met on the Field of Mars (Campus Martius) an open plain; replaced the Comitia Curiata (of ordinary townsmen) of Etruscan days. Voted on laws, make sure laws were kept, elected government officials (magistrates), voted on going to war. (p21
Concilium Plebis (The Plebian Assembly)
Made up of Plebeians; Patricians were excluded; passed laws that affected the city of Rome. p22
The Twelve Tables (or Tablets)
The first written Roman code of law; laws written on twelve bronze tablets and posted in the Forum; all legal disputes were judged using the same set of rules. p23
Innocent until proven guilty
Roman concept of justice; innocent until or unless proven guilty- a reverse from old ways when all accused were considered guilty and they had to prove their innocence (think of the Greek trials!). p24
What Cincinnatus showed us-a devot loyalty to the spirit of public service. p24
The two men (patricians) elected by the senate to be at the head of the Roman government, instead of a King. These men were part of a Republican form of government, which took the place of a monarchy (rule by a King). Lead the government, commanded the army. They consulted each other-neither had absolute power. Served a one year term.p20
Made up of two officials elected by the plebians -had power to defeat/prevent passage of a law (which was the only power they had). p22
Assembly of ordinary townsmen, which met to discuss everyday matters, such as the fair price of grain. p16
Every citizen has a vote - as in Greece. People have more of a direct influence. Roman government was not a true democracy with the patricians holding most of the power.
Designed by the Romans and included on their ships-A hinged gangplank with a sharp iron spike at the end that looked like the beak of a bird. Corvus is Latin for "the raven." Used to ram into enemy ships. Raised and tied to a mast when not in use.
Carthago delenda est
"Carthage must be destroyed!". Roman Senator Marcus Porcius Cato always ended his speeches by saying these words. He wanted to keep the bad feelings toward Carthage alive in Rome!
The Latin word for Phoenician. Carthage had been settled hundreds of years before the Punic Wars by colonists in the city of Tyre in Phoenicia. In the Punic Wars, Rome and Carthage fight.
Built a powerful naval fleet to protect their ports and merchant ships; eliminated almost all pirates from the western Mediterranean! Military might!!! Small volunteer army.
Settled by the Phoenicians from the colony of Tyre in Phoenicia (now Lebanon)-Tyre collapsed-master shipbuilders. Large & wealthy-Prosperous trading port in North Africa (Gold, Silver, Tin,Ivory, Salt, Slaves). City sat high on a hill overlooking the sea; city surrounded by three huge walls with lookout towers; setup a vast commercial network. On the southwestern coast of the Mediterranean near the narrowest part of the sea-strategic location. 2 excellent harbors. Wealthy landowners set up an oligarchy once the Phoenician power collapsed, took over former Phoenician colonies and ended up with North Africa, Corsica, Sardinia, part of Sicily, Eastern Spain, The Balearic Islands, the Strait of Gibraltar.
Italy - "Italia" means "calf- land" After the fact that the herdsmen grazed cattle. People=Serious-minded, highly disciplined, and industrious. They made allies out of former enemies with their genius, flexibility, and strength, A Peninsula.
and respect for other cultures (such as Greece). Etruscans lived to the north of Latium.
Etruria is located in modern Tuscany, and was made up of about a dozen walled cities. Located between the Arno River and the Tiber. Came by sea from Asia Minor or from the north (being debated by historians) in 8th Century B.C.
The Etruscans were formidable warriors.
By 6th Century B.C. the Etruscans were highly civilized and active in trading with the Mediterranean world.
The Etruscans helped development of Rome. When the last King in Rome(a very cruel Etruscan) was driven out of Rome by the Latins (revolt in 509 B.C.), the Senate declared that they wanted no more kings! No more Monarchy! New form of government would favor rule by the people (a Republic).
Italy Geography-Location of Rome
4 Critical ways that geography influenced the settlements in Italy: 1. Fresh water- Tiber River, Po River (farming and drinking, bathing). 2. Access to the Sea (Rome = only 15 miles inland from sea-trade military expansion) Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Mediterranean Sea Best harbors western side of peninsula on the South coast. Centrally located in the Mediterranean. 3, Good Land (volcanic soil fertile for farming-full of nutrients, feed grazing animals, animals that can be hunted can live there). West of the Apennines are wide coastal plains -Etruria, Latium, Campanian-all have rich volcanic soil.-people who lived there were wealthier. East of the Apennines lies land that is drier and less fertile. People who lived there were poorer. Climate: Temperate, Winters mild and rainy with snow high in mountains. Summers hot and dry. Plant seeds in the fall, germinate over winter, harvest in the Spring. Crops received from Greece-olives and grapes-are
harvested in the Fall. Good weather for people, plants, and animals.
4. Protection (Rome built on 7 hills, high banks of Tiber River, Appennine mountains North and South). 3/4 of Italy's peninsula is mountainous. Alps are at the northern border,
Apennine Mountains- run from the northwest to the southeast along the boot's center like a spine. Cities of Rome and Alba Longa.
Roman System of Laws
The system/model that our judicial system is based on.
Our U.S. Constitution was based on the system of government created in Rome.
Located on the Western coast of Italy almost half way down the coast. Borders the Mediterranean Sea. Early settlements 1000 B.C.-nomads (herdsmen) Indo-Europeans came from
northeastern Europe and settled in the Plain of Latium. The nomads were ancestors of Celts, Greeks, and the people of the steppes of Russia who migrated there.
Plain of Latium runs from the Tiber River southward to Volscian Hills and covers 700 square miles. Latins is the name given to the people who are dwellers of Latium. 800 B.C. The Latin clansmen settled and united several villages which eventually became Rome. Large well developed army.
Rome's perfected methods to obtain territory
1. Establish military territories in important areas-competed with Carthage for territories. 2. Offer full Roman citizenship to those who learned the Latin language and obeyed Roman laws. 3. The Romans built public roads and buildings.
Locate on a Map
Italy, Rome, Alba Longa, Naples, Latium Plains, Campanian Plains, Po River, Tiber River, Alps, Apennines, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Spain, Carthage, Northern Africa, Asia Minor, Syria, Gaul, Atlantic Ocean, Black Sea, Ionian Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Adriatic Sea.
First Punic War
264 B.C lasted 23 years-Between: Carthage controlled some of the island of Sicily and Rome controlled the rest. Sicily valuable territory-fertile soil grew great amounts of grain, located close to the shores of Italy. Town of Messina on Sicily revolted against Carthage and asked Rome to help them, the Romans declared war against Carthage. Rome had to create a navy and create ships (each with a corvus) to beat Carthage-Carthage agreed to abandon Sicily and pay a huge fine to Rome. Rome then took the islands of Sardinia and Corsica as well and made the people there pay tribute to Rome.
Carthaginian general- fought in Sicily, led an army to Spain to conquer the country rich with natural resources (gold & silver), and recruit young Spaniards into his army.
Son of Hamlicar Barca-helped his dad conquer most of Spain. Pledged to his dad would fight Romans until he defeated them. A fearless, clever fighter; liked to ambush enemy. Father died- he took over as general of Carthaginian army.
Conflict of Orders
Began when Plebeians wanted more political rights-Plebeians did not want to serve in the military, pay taxes, they wanted to be able to make decisions on their behalf. They went in strike leaving their jobs and leaving Rome. Compromise made by government Patricians-10 plebeians elected to Senate cannot make laws but can veto laws to help their people.